Forever Foreign: Islamophobia throughout American History
For more on this topic, see Unpacking the Effects of Islamophobia
American primordialism: Americans as White, Protestant Anglo-Saxons
Tolerance, inclusivity, and American Muslims
Enduring stereotypes: Islam as foreign, Muslims as dubious
Moving forward with an American civic nationalism
1 Samuel P. Huntington, Who Are We? The Challenges to American National Identity (New York ; London: Simon & Schuster, 2004).
4 Alan Wolfe, “Native Son: Samuel Huntington Defends the Homeland,” January 28, 2009, https://www.foreignaffairs.com/reviews/review-essay/2004-05-01/native-son-samuel-huntington-defends-homeland; Michiko Kakutani, “BOOKS OF THE TIMES; An Identity Crisis for Norman Rockwell America,” The New York Times, May 28, 2004, sec. Books, https://www.nytimes.com/2004/05/28/books/books-of-the-times-an-identity-crisis-for-norman-rockwell-america.html.
5 “Demographic Portrait of Muslim Americans,” July 26, 2017, http://www.pewforum.org/2017/07/26/demographic-portrait-of-muslim-americans/.
6 Claire Jean Kim, “The Racial Triangulation of Asian Americans,” Politics & Society 27, no. 1 (1999): 105–38.
8 Roger Williams was a staunch supporter of religious tolerance, to the extent that he was excommunicated and exiled from the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In a famous work entitled The Bloody Tenent of Persecution for Cause of Conscience (published in 1644), Williams declares “It is the will and command of God that, since the coming of his Son, the Lord Jesus, a permission of the most Paganish, Jewish, Turkish, or anti-Christian consciences and worships be granted to all men in all nations and countries.”
9 “Declaration of Independence,” National Archives, 1776, https://www.archives.gov/founding-docs/declaration-transcript.
10 Many eastern European countries, such as Poland for example, acknowledge a denomination of Christianity as the official state religion while securing the freedom of religion for others.
11 Jonathan Curiel, Islam in America (London: I.B.Tauris, 2015).
12 Peter Gottschalk and Gabriel Greenberg, “Common Heritage, Uncommon Fear: Islamophobia in the United States and British India, 1687-1947,” in Islamophobia in America: The Anatomy of Intolerance, ed. Carl Ernest (Palgrave Macmillan, 2013), 205.
13 Curiel, Islam in America.
14 Gottschalk and Greenberg, “Common Heritage, Uncommon Fear: Islamophobia in the United States and British India, 1687-1947.”
15 John Locke, Two Treatises of Government and A Letter Concerning Toleration (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2003).
16 Gottschalk and Greenberg, “Common Heritage, Uncommon Fear: Islamophobia in the United States and British India, 1687-1947,” 29.
17 Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America. Volumes I & II, 1840, vol. 2, p. 23.
18 Gottschalk and Greenberg, “Common Heritage, Uncommon Fear: Islamophobia in the United States and British India, 1687-1947.”
19 John Higham, Strangers in the Land: Patterns of American Nativism, 1860-1925 (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2002).
20 Kerem Ozan Kalkan, Geoffrey C. Layman, and Eric M. Uslaner, “‘Bands of Others’? Attitudes toward Muslims in Contemporary American Society,” The Journal of Politics 71, no. 3 (2009): 847–62, https://doi.org/10.1017/s0022381609090756.
22 Ron Fournier, “How Obama Redefined American Exceptionalism,” The Atlantic, July 28, 2016, https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2016/07/obamas-new-american-exceptionalism/493415/.
24 Greg Jaffe, “Obama’s New Patriotism,” The Washington Post (blog), 2015, http://www.washingtonpost.com/sf/national/2015/06/03/obama-and-american-exceptionalism/.
25 Fournier, “How Obama Redefined American Exceptionalism.”
27 Jürgen Habermas, The Inclusion of the Other: Studies in Political Theory (Cambridge, Mass: The MIT Press, 1998).