Islamophobia and the Law: Unpacking Structural Islamophobia
For more on this topic, see Unpacking the Effects of Islamophobia
Structural Islamophobia in the European context
Structural Islamophobia in the North American context
the strengthening of state powers of surveillance and detention; the imposition of greater restrictions on immigration and refugee policies; the increased scrutiny of immigrants and refugees (both at the borders and within the country) and a strengthening of the powers of deportation; a commitment to fighting the war against terrorism under the leadership of the Bush administration, most specifically to participate in the war on Afghanistan; and the intensification of intelligence, security, and military alliances with the United States.22
the detention and expulsion of non-citizens who are considered to be a threat to national security. Detainees have no opportunity to be heard before a certificate is issued, and a designated judge of the federal court reviews most of the government’s case against the detainee in a secret hearing at which neither the detainee nor his counsel is present. The detainee receives only a summary of the evidence against him. Detention is mandatory for non-permanent residents…and there is no possibility of release unless a person leaves Canada, or the certificate is struck down, or if 120 days have elapsed and deportation has still not taken place.24
1 Bakali, Naved. 2019. "Yaqeen Institute for Islamic Research: Collections." Yaqeen Institute for Islamic Research. March 22. Accessed August 7, 2019. https://yaqeeninstitute.org/navedbakali/islamophobia-in-american-society-culture-politics/.
2 Beydoun, Khaled. 2018. American Islamophobia: Understanding the roots and rise of fear. Oakland: University of California Press.
3 Suleiman, O. (2017). "Exploring the Faith and Identity Crisis of American Muslim Youth." Islamophobia Studies Journal, 4(1).
4 Dearden, Lizzie. 2017. The Independent: News. July 11. Accessed August 8, 2019. https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/belgium-burqa-ban-upheld-european-court-of-human-rights-dakir-v-full-face-islamic-veils-headscarf-a7835156.html.
5 Pells, Rachael. 2016. The Independent: News. April 21. Accessed August 8, 2019. https://www.independent.co.uk/news/islamic-muslim-face-veil-niqab-burqa-banned-latvia-despite-being-worn-by-just-three-women-entire-a6993991.html.
6 The Guardian. 2018. The Guardian: News. May 31. Accessed August 8, 2019. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/may/31/denmark-passes-law-banning-burqa-and-niqab.
7 McKenzie, Stephanie Halasz and Sheena. 2018. CNN: World. June 27. Accessed August 8, 2019. https://edition.cnn.com/2018/06/27/europe/netherlands-partial-burqa-ban-intl/index.html.
8 Lean, Nathan. 2012. The Islamophobia industry: How the Right manufactures fear of Muslims. London: Pluto Press.
9 Hanley, Jon. 2004. The Guardian: News. February 11. Accessed August 8, 2019. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2004/feb/11/schools.schoolsworldwide.
10 Elian Peltier and Aurelien Breeden, ‘A sports hijab has France debating the Muslim veil, again,’ February 28, 2019, The New York Times. Retrieved March 3, 2019: https://www.nytimes.com/2019/02/28/world/europe/france-sports-hijab-decathlon.html
11 Frantz Fanon. (1965). Algeria Unveiled. The New Left Reader, 161-185.
12 Alia Al-Saji, (2010). The racialization of Muslim Veils: A philosophical analysis. Philosophy and Social Criticism, 36(8), 883.
13 Younis, Tarek. 2019. Yaqeen Institute for Islamic Research. March 21. Accessed August 8, 2019. https://yaqeeninstitute.org/tarekyounis/counter-radicalization-a-critical-look-into-a-racist-new-industry/.
14 Home Office. Individuals referred to and supported through the Prevent Programme, April 2017 to March 2018. (2018). Available at: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/763254/individuals-referred-supported-prevent-programme-apr2017-mar2018-hosb3118.pdf
15 Butt, Salman. 2019. TRT World: Opinion. March 11. Accessed August 8, 2019. https://www.trtworld.com/opinion/anti-extremist-policy-targeting-uk-muslims-successfully-appealed-24844.
16 Butt, Salman. 2017. Islam21.com: News. November 9. Accessed August 8, 2019. https://www.trtworld.com/opinion/anti-extremist-policy-targeting-uk-muslims-successfully-appealed-24844.
17 Kundnani, A. (2014). The Muslims are coming: Islamophobia, extremism, and the domestic War on Terror. New York, NY: Verso.
18 Authier, Philip. 2019. The Montreal Gazette: News. June 17. Accessed August 9, 2019. https://montrealgazette.com/news/quebec/quebec-passes-secularism-law-after-marathon-session.
19 Wong, A. (2011). The disquieting revolution: A genealogy of reason and racism in the Québec press. Global Media. Vol. 4, No. 1, 145-162.
20 Mahrouse, G. (2010). Reasonable accommodation’ debates in Quebec: The limits of participation and dialogue. Race and Class. Vol. 52, No. 1, 85-96.
21 Alsultany, E. (2012). Arabs and Muslims in the media: Race and representation after 9/11. New York, NY: New York University Press.
22 Thobani, S. (2007). Exalted subjects: Studies in the making of race and nation in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, p. 348.
23 Mazigh, M. (2009). Hope and despair: My struggle to free my husband, Maher Arar. New York, NY: Emblem Editions.
24 Razack, S. (2008). Casting out: The eviction of Muslims from western law and politics. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press, p. 26.
26 Freeze, C. (2009). Video evidence shows details of homegrown terrorism plans. Globe and Mail, 20 October.
27 Center for Human Rights and Global Justice . (2011). Targeted and Entrapped: Manufacturing the "Homegrown Threat" in the United States. New York: Center for Human Rights and Global Justice, p. 2.
28 Teotonio, I. (2010, January 11). Toronto Star: News; GTA. Retrieved February 23, 2013, from Toronto Star website: http://www.thestar.com/news/gta/2010/01/11/informant_paid_millions_to_infiltrate_toronto_18_testifies.html
29 Suleiman, O. (2017). Exploring the Faith and Identity Crisis of American Muslim Youth. Islamophobia Studies Journal, 4(1).
30 Aaser, S. H. “From Islamophobia to Identity Crisis: Internalized Oppression Among American Muslim Children,” Noor Kids, 2016.
31 Suleiman, O. (2017). Exploring the Faith and Identity Crisis of American Muslim Youth. Islamophobia Studies Journal, 4(1).