This paper is Part 2 of the I'jaz al-Qur'an publication series. Read Part 1 here.

Say, “Even if all mankind and jinn came together to produce the equivalent of this Qur’an, they could not produce its equal, however much they helped each other.”[1]


Among the most foundational and significant beliefs of Muslims is absolute conviction in the Qur’an as the Speech (kalām) of God, divine and preserved, unparalleled and unmatched by any human speech, and inimitable by any individual or group. What follows is the second essay in a series on the miraculous nature of the Qur’an, addressing the role of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ, the inimitability of the Qur’an, and a review of various imitation attempts over time. By the end of this series, the evidence will clearly demonstrate that the Qur’an’s authorship cannot reasonably be attributed to anyone but God. 

The final Messenger of God ﷺ 

Context of the claim

Prophet Muhammad’s integrity

The iʿjāz of the Qur’an 

History of the challenge

Earliest imitation attempts