- Where its purpose is subordinated, as a means, to the higher purpose of becoming, by means of the acquired understanding, someone who receives God’s pleasure and Paradise;
- Where it is pursued under the premise that Islam is a universal message to humanity, revealed by God through the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ; and
- Where the methodology it deploys is compatible with 1) and 2).
 See Swinburne, Richard. The Coherence of Theism 2nd ed. (2016: OUP, Oxford); Plantinga, Alvin. Where the Conflict Really Lies: Science, Religion, and Naturalism. (2011: OUP, Oxford); Adams, Robert. Finite and Infinite Goods: A Framework for Ethics. (2002: OUP, Oxford).
 The Muqaddimah, Franz Rosenthal, trans. Princeton University Press: Princeton, 1967. p. 363.
 Moad, Edward. “Al-Ghazali’s Position on the ‘Second Proof’ of the ‘Philosophers’ for the Eternity of the World, in the First Discussion of the Incoherence of the Philosophers,” Sophia, 2015.
 Boethius. The Consolation of Philosophy, P.G. Walsh, trans. Oxford University Press, 1999; Augustine. Confessions, Henry Chadwick, trans. Oxford University Press, 1998; Philoponus, John. Against Aristotle on the Eternity of the World. Christian Wildberg, trans. Bloomsbury, London – New York, 2014.
 Kuhn, Thomas S. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. University of Chicago Press, 1962.
 Popper, Karl. Logik der Forschung. Verlag von Julius Springer, Vienna. 1992.
 See Ghazali, Abu Hamid. Al Iqtisad fi Al I'tiqad (Moderation in Belief), Aladdin M. Yaqub, trans. University of Chicago Press, 2013; and Ibn Rushd. Fasl al Maqal (Decisive Treatise), Charles Butterworth, trans. Brigham Young University Press, Provo, Utah, 2008.