Note

This article has been updated on July 1st, 2020.

Introduction

The Qur’an during the Prophet’s time

Did the Prophet ﷺ teach multiple readings?

The nature of the aḥruf

Codices of companions

How do we view the variants reported from Companions?

Critiquing a different paradigm: qirāʾah bi-l-maʿná

Conclusions: The origins of the qirāʾāt

Notes