The Guiding Principles of Faith: Sincerity, Honesty, and Good Will in Islam
Published: July 19, 2018 • Updated: October 20, 2020
Author: Justin Parrott
بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيْمِ
In the name of God, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
Verily, deeds are only by intentions. Verily, every person will have only what they intended. Whoever emigrated to get something in the world or to marry a woman, then his emigration is for whatever he emigrated for.
Verily, the people will be raised for judgment only according to their intentions.
It is We who sent down the Scripture to you [Prophet] with the Truth, so worship Allah with your total devotion: true devotion is due to Allah alone.
[Yet] those who were given the Scripture became divided only after they were sent [such] clear evidence, though all they are ordered to do is worship Allah alone, sincerely devoting their religion to Him as people of true faith, keep up the prayer, and pay the prescribed alms, for that is the true religion.
Remember Our servants Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, all men of strength and vision. We caused them to be devoted to Us through their sincere remembrance of the Final Home: with Us they will be among the elect, the truly good.
Say, ‘My Lord commands righteousness. Direct your worship straight to Him wherever you pray; call on Him; devote your religion entirely to Him. Just as He first created you, so you will come back [to life] again.’
Say, ‘I have been commanded to serve Allah, dedicating my worship entirely to Him.’
So call upon Allah and dedicate your religion to Him alone, however hateful this may be to the disbelievers.
He is the Living One and there is no God but Him, so call on Him, and dedicate your religion entirely to Him. Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds.
The hypocrites will be in the lowest depths of Hell, and you will find no one to help them. Not so those who repent, mend their ways, hold fast to Allah, and devote their religion entirely to Him: these will be joined with the believers, and Allah will give the believers a mighty reward.
And We shall turn to the deeds they have done and scatter them like dust.
Iblis [Satan] then said to Allah, ‘Because You have put me in the wrong, I will lure mankind on earth and put them in the wrong, all except Your devoted servants.
There are three traits by which the heart of a Muslim will not be deceived (or consumed by hatred): sincere deeds for Allah, offering goodwill to the leaders of the Muslims, and keeping to their community.
A man had indulged himself in sin, so when death approached he enjoined his sons, saying: When I die you should burn me, pulverize me, and scatter me to the winds over the sea. By Allah, if Allah is capable he will punish me in such a way as he has not punished anyone else. So they did that to him and when he stood before his Lord, Allah said to him: What compelled you to do what you did? The man said: Fear and awe of you, O Lord. Thus, Allah forgave him due to that.
Keep up the prayer: prayer restrains outrageous and unacceptable behavior. Remembering Allah is greater: Allah knows everything you are doing.
Verily, the bankrupt of my nation are those who come on the Day of Resurrection with prayers, fasting, and charity, but also with insults, slander, consuming wealth, shedding blood, and beating others. The oppressed will each be given from his good deeds. If his good deeds run out before justice is fulfilled, then their sins will be cast upon him and he will be thrown into the Hellfire.
A person might fast and he gets nothing from his fast but hunger. A person might pray at night but he gets nothing from his prayer but sleeplessness.
Expeditions are of two kinds. As for one who seeks the countenance of Allah, obeys the leader, spends in charity from his precious possessions, shows leniency to his colleagues, and avoids corruption, then the entirety of his sleep and vigilance are rewarded. As for one who fights out of pride, showing off, and seeking a reputation, who disobeys the leader and commits corruption in the land, then he will return with nothing of importance.
Allah Almighty said: Verily, I have no need of any partners. Whoever performs a deed in which he associates another besides me, I will abandon him and his partner.
When Allah gathers the people on the Day of Resurrection, a day of which there is no doubt, an announcement will be made: To those who shared with anyone in deeds done for Allah, then let him seek his reward from those besides Allah. Verily, Allah is free of any partners.
O people! Make your deeds sincere for Allah Almighty. Verily, Allah does not accept any deed unless it is done sincerely for him. Do not say: This is for the sake of Allah and this is for the sake of my relatives. Verily, it was done for your relatives and none of it was for Allah. And do not say: This is for the sake of Allah and for your sake. Verily, it was done for their sake and none of it was for Allah.
Give glad tidings to this nation of honor, victory, and stability. Yet, whoever does a deed of the Hereafter for the sake of the world, then he will have no portion of it in the Hereafter.
It is ostentation (or “showing off”). Allah Almighty will say to them on the Day of Resurrection, when people are being recompensed for their deeds: Go to those for whom you made a show in the world and look, do you find any reward with them?
By The One in Whose Hand is my soul, there is idolatry more hidden than the crawling of an ant. Shall I not tell you something to say to rid you of it, both minor and major? Say: O Allah, I seek refuge in you that I associate partners with you while I know, and I seek your forgiveness for what I do not know.
So woe to those who pray but are heedless of their prayer; those who are all show and forbid common kindnesses.
The hypocrites try to deceive Allah, but it is He who causes them to be deceived. When they stand up to pray, they do so sluggishly, showing off in front of people, and remember Allah only a little.
Whoever seeks knowledge that should be sought for the sake of Allah Almighty, but only to gain some worldly benefit, then he will never smell the fragrance of Paradise on the Day of Resurrection.
Whoever seeks knowledge in order to impress the scholars, or to argue with the foolish, or to attract the attention of people, then Allah will admit him into Hellfire.
Verily, the first people to be judged on the Day of Resurrection will be a man who was martyred. He will be brought, the blessings of Allah will be made known, and he will acknowledge them. Allah will say: What did you do about them? The man will say: I fought in your cause until I was martyred. Allah will say: You have lied, for you fought only that it would be said you were brave, and thus it was said. Then, Allah will order him to be dragged upon his face until he is cast into Hellfire. Another man studied religious knowledge, taught others, and recited the Qur'ān. He will be brought, the blessings of Allah will be made known and he will acknowledge them. Allah will say: What did you do about them? The man will say: I learned religious knowledge, taught others, and I recited the Qur'ān for your sake. Allah will say: You have lied, for you studied only that it would be said you are a scholar and you recited the Qur'ān only that it would be said you are a reciter, and thus it was said. Then, Allah will order him to be dragged upon his face until he is cast into Hellfire. Another man was given an abundance of blessings from Allah and every kind of wealth. He will be brought, the blessings of Allah will be made known and he will acknowledge them. Allah will say: What did you do about them? The man will say: I did not leave any good cause beloved to you but that I spent on it for your sake. Allah will say: You have lied, for you spent only that it would be said you are generous, and thus it was said. Then, Allah will order him to be dragged upon his face until he is cast into Hellfire.
There is no compulsion in religion: true guidance has become distinct from error, so whoever rejects false gods and believes in Allah has grasped the firmest handhold, one that will never break. Allah is All-Hearing and All-Knowing.
Say, ‘Now the truth has come from your Lord: let those who wish to believe in it do so, and let those who wish to reject it do so.’
So [Prophet] warn them: your only task is to give warning, you are not there to control them.
Whoever obeys the Messenger obeys Allah. If some pay no heed, We have not sent you to be their keeper.
If you say this is a lie, [be warned that] other communities before you said the same. The messenger's only duty is to give clear warning.
Are the messengers obliged to do anything other than deliver [their message] clearly?
Say, ‘Obey Allah; obey the Messenger. If you turn away, [know that] he is responsible for the duty placed upon him, and you are responsible for the duty placed upon you. If you obey him, you will be rightly guided, but the Messenger's duty is only to deliver the message clearly.’
Obey Allah, obey the Messenger, and always be on your guard: if you pay no heed, bear in mind that the sole duty of Our Messenger is to deliver the message clearly.
They said, ‘Our Lord knows that we have been sent to you. Our duty is only to deliver the message to you.’
Had your Lord willed, all the people on earth would have believed. So can you [Prophet] compel people to believe?
We have assigned a law and a path to each of you. If Allah had so willed, He would have made you one community, but He wanted to test you through that which He has given you, so race to do good: you will all return to Allah and He will make clear to you the matters you differed about.
[The Prophet] never forced the religion upon anyone, but rather he only fought those who waged war against him and fought him first. As for those who made peace with him or conducted a truce, then he never fought them and he never compelled them to enter his religion, as his Lord the Almighty had commanded him: There is no compulsion in religion, for right guidance is distinct from error.
You who believe, be mindful of Allah: stand with those who are true.
Mention too, in the Qur'an, the story of Abraham. He was a man of truth, a prophet.
Mention too, in the Qur'an, the story of Ishmael. He was true to his promise, a messenger and a prophet.
Mention too, in the Qur'an, the story of Idris. He was a man of truth, a prophet.
No one testifies that there is no God but Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah—honestly from the heart (sidq min qalbih)—but that Allah will forbid him from entering Hellfire.
You must be truthful. Verily, truthfulness leads to righteousness and righteousness leads to Paradise. A man continues to be truthful and encourages honesty until he is recorded with Allah as truthful. And beware of falsehood. Verily, falsehood leads to wickedness and wickedness leads to the Hellfire. A man continues tell lies and encourages falsehood until he is recorded with Allah as a liar.
The faith of a servant is not upright until his heart is upright, and his heart is not upright until his tongue is upright. A man will not enter Paradise if his neighbor is not secure from his evil.
There are four signs that make someone a pure hypocrite and whoever has them has a characteristic of hypocrisy until he abandons it: when he speaks he lies, when he makes a covenant he is treacherous, when he makes a promise he breaks it, and when he argues he is wicked.
You must be honest in all things. Beware of lying and treachery and sitting with those who commit them, for it will all be a burden of sin. Beware, my brother, of ostentation in words and deeds, as it is a form of idolatry. Beware of vanity, for good deeds within which is vanity will not be exalted.
You who believe, fulfil your obligations.
The Muslim is the one from whose tongue and hand the people are safe, and the believer is the one people trust with their lives and wealth.
None of you has faith until he loves for his brother or his neighbor what he loves for himself.
Whoever would love to be saved from Hellfire and admitted into Paradise, then let him meet his end with faith in Allah and the Last Day, and let him treat people the way he would love to be treated.
They understood it is part of goodwill (al-nush) that one should not be pleased for his brother to have except what pleases himself. They did not believe it was [merely] virtuous and an increase in [spiritual] ranks. Rather, they believed it was a condition of Islam within their pledge to him.
I am delivering my Lord's messages to you and giving you sincere advice. I know things from Allah that you do not.
I am delivering my Lord's messages to you. I am your sincere and honest adviser.
My people, I delivered my Lord's messages to you and gave you sincere advice, but you did not like those who gave sincere advice.
1 Muḥammad ibn Ismāʻīl al-Bukhārī. Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī. (Bayrūt: Dār Ṭawq al-Najjāh, 2002), 1:6 #1.
2 Ibn Ḥajar. Fatḥ al-Bārī. (Bayrūt: Dār al-Maʻrifah, 1959), 1:11.
3 Yaḥyá ibn Sharaf al-Nawawī. Sharḥ al-Nawawī ‘alá Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim. (Bayrūt: Dār Iḥyā’ al-Turāth al-’Arabī, 1972), 13:53 #1907.
4 Ibn Mājah. Sunan Ibn Mājah. (Bayrūt: Dār Iḥyā’ al-Turāth al-’Arabī), 2:1414 #4229; declared authentic (ṣaḥīḥ) by Al-Albānī in Ṣaḥīḥ al-Jāmi’ al-Ṣaghīr, (Bayrūt: Dār Iḥyā’ al-Turāth al-’Arabī, 1969), 1:468 #2379.
5 Aḥmad ibn ’Abd al-Raḥmān ibn Qudāmah. Mukhtaṣar Minhāj al-Qāṣidīn. (Dimashq: Maktabat Dār al-Bayān, 1978), 1:365.
6 Sūrat al-Zumar 39:2-3; Abdel Haleem, M. A. The Qur’an: English translation and parallel Arabic text. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010), 459.
7 Sūrat al-Bayyinah 98:4-5; Abdel Haleem, 599.
8 Sūrat Ṣad 38:45-47; Abdel Haleem, 457.
9 Sūrat al-A’rāf 7:29; Abdel Haleem, 154.
10 Sūrat al-Zumar 39:11; Abdel Haleem, 461.
11 Sūrat Ghāfir 40:14; Abdel Haleem, 469.
12 Sūrat Ghāfir 40:65; Abdel Haleem, 475.
13 Sūrat al-Nisā’ 4:145-146; Abdel Haleem, 102.
14 Sūrat al-Furqān 25:23; Abdel Haleem, 363.
15 Muslim Ibn al-Ḥajjāj al-Qushayrī. Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim. ([Bayrūt]: Dār Iḥyāʼ al-Kutub al-ʻArabīyah, 1955), 1:196 #214.
16 Aḥmad ibn Shuʻayb al-Nasā'ī. Sunan al-Nasā'ī. (Ḥalab: Maktab al-Maṭbūʻāt al-Islāmīyah, 1986), 6:25 #3140; declared good (jayyid) by Ibn Ḥajar in Fatḥ al-Bārī 6:28.
17 Sūrat al-Ḥijr 15:39-40; Abdel Haleem, 265.
18 Abū Ḥāmid al-Ghazzālī. Iḥyā’ ‘Ulūm al-Dīn. (Bayrūt: Dār al-Maʻrifah, 1980), 4:378.
19 Muḥammad ibn ʻĪsá al-Tirmidhī. Sunan al-Tirmidhī. (Bayrūt: Dār al-Ġarb al-Islāmī, 1998), 4:331 #2658; declared authentic (ṣaḥīḥ) by Al-Albānī in Ṣaḥīḥ al-Jāmi’ al-Ṣaghīr 2:1145 #6766.
20 ‘Alī ibn Sulṭān Muḥammad al-Qārī. Mirqāt al-Mafātīḥ. (Bayrūt: Dār al-Fikr, 2002), 1:306 #228.
21 Al-Bukhārī, Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī, 9:18 #6938.
22 Abū Ḥayyān Muḥammad ibn Yūsuf. al-Baḥr al-Muḥīt. (Bayrūt: Dār al-Fikr, 1992), 1:658, verse 2:139.
23 Muslim, Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, 4:2110 #2756.
24 Ibn Qayyim al-Jawzīyah. Madārij al-Sālikīn. (Bayrūt: Dār al-Kutub al-ʻArabī, 1996), 1:348.
25 Muslim, Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, 4:1986 #2564.
26 Al-Nasā'ī, Sunan al-Nasā'ī, 6:45 #3178; declared authentic (ṣaḥīḥ) by Al-Albānī in Ṣaḥīḥ al-Jāmi’ al-Ṣaghīr 1:470 #2388.
27 Sūrat al-‘Ankabūt 29:45; Abdel Haleem, 402.
28 Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal, Musnad al-Imām Aḥmad Ibn Ḥanbal, (Bayrūt: Mu’assasat al-Risālah, 2001), 15:483 #9778; declared authentic (ṣaḥīḥ) by Al-Arnā’ūṭ et al in their commentary.
29 Muslim, Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, 4:1997 #2581.
30 Ibn Mājah, Sunan Ibn Mājah, 1:539 #1690; declared authentic (ṣaḥīḥ) by Al-Albānī in Ṣaḥīḥ al-Jāmi’ al-Ṣaghīr 1:656 #3488.
31 Ibn Qayyim al-Jawzīyah. Iʻlām Al-Muwaqqiʻīn. (Bayrut: Dar al-Kutub al-ʻIlmiyah, 1991), 2:124; Sūrat al-Kahf 18:110, Abdel Haleem, 305.
32 Al-Ghazzālī, Iḥyā’ ‘Ulūm al-Dīn, 4:379.
33 Abū Dāwūd Sulaymān ibn al-Ashʻath al-Sijistānī. Sunan Abī Dāwūd. (Ṣaydā, Lubnān: al-Maktabah al-Aṣrīyah, 1980), 3:13 #2515; declared fair (ḥasan) by Al-Albānī in Ṣaḥīḥ al-Jāmi’ al-Ṣaghīr 2:768 #4174.
34 Ibn Ḥanbal, Musnad Aḥmad, 13:277 #7900; declared fair due to external evidence (ḥasan li ghayri) by Al-Arnā’ūṭ et al in their commentary.
35 Al-Ghazzālī, Iḥyā’ ‘Ulūm al-Dīn, 4:379.
36 Muslim, Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, 4:2289 #2985.
37 Al-Tirmidhī, Sunan al-Tirmidhī, 5:165 #3154; declared fair (ḥasan) by Al-Albānī in Ṣaḥīḥ al-Jāmi’ al-Ṣaghīr 1:145 #482.
38 ‘Alī ibn ’Umar al-Dāraquṭnī. Sunan al-Dāraquṭnī. (Bayrūt: Muʼassasat al-Risālah, 2004), 1:77 #133; declared authentic (ṣaḥīḥ) by Al-Albānī in Silsilat al-Ṣaḥīḥah (al-Riyāḍ: Maktabat al-Ma’ārif, 1996), 6:624 #2764.
39 Ibn Ḥanbal, Musnad Aḥmad, 35:147 #21223; declared strong (qawī) by Al-Arnā’ūṭ et al in their commentary.
40 Ibn al-Sarī. Kitāb al-Zuhd. (Kuwait: Dār al-Khulafā’ lil-Kitāb al-Islāmī, 1985), 2:435.
41 Abū Ḥayyān, al-Baḥr al-Muḥīt, 1:658, verse 2:139.
42 Ibn Ḥanbal, Musnad Aḥmad, 39:.39 #23630; declared authentic (ṣaḥīḥ) by Al-Albānī in Ṣaḥīḥ al-Jāmi’ al-Ṣaghīr 1:323 #1555.
43 Muḥammad ibn Ismāʻīl al-Bukhārī. al-Adab al-Mufrad. (al-Rīyāḍ: Maktabat al-Ma’ārif lil-Nashr wal-Tawzī’, 1998), 1:377 #716; declared authentic (ṣaḥīḥ) by Al-Albānī in his commentary.
44 Ibn Mājah, Sunan Ibn Mājah, 2:1406 #4204; declared fair (ḥasan) by Al-Albānī in Ṣaḥīḥ al-Jāmi’ al-Ṣaghīr 1:509 #2607.
45 Sūrat al-Mā’ūn 107:4-7; Abdel Haleem, 603.
46 Sūrat al-Nisā’ 4:142; Abdel Haleem, 142.
47 Abū Bakr Aḥmad al-Bazzār. al-Baḥr al-Zakhkhār al-Maʻrūf bi-Musnad al-Bazzār. (al-Madīnah al-Munawwarah: Maktabat al-ʻUlūm wal-Ḥikam, 2009), 8:407 #3482; declared fair (ḥasan) by Ibn Kathīr in Jāmi’ al-Masānīd wal-Sunan (Bayrūt: Dār Khiḍr, 1998), 4:211-212 #5151.
48 Abū Dāwūd, Sunan Abī Dāwūd, 3:323 #3664; declared authentic (ṣaḥīḥ) by Al-Albānī in Ṣaḥīḥ al-Jāmi’ al-Ṣaghīr 2:1060 #6159.
49 Al-Tirmidhī, Sunan al-Tirmidhī, 4:329 #2654; declared fair (ḥasan) by Al-Albānī in Ṣaḥīḥ al-Jāmi’ al-Ṣaghīr 2:1091 #6383.
50 Ibn Rajab. Jāmi’ al-‘Ulūm wal-Ḥikam. (Bayrūt: Mu’assasat al-Risālah, 2001), 1:489 #19.
51 Ibn Qudāmah, Mukhtaṣar Minhāj al-Qāṣidīn, 1:365.
52 Muslim, Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, 3:1513 #1905.
53 Sūrat al-Baqarah 2:256; Abdel Haleem, 43.
54 Sūrat al-Kahf 18:29; Abdel Haleem, 298.
55 Sūrat al-Ghāshiyah 88:21-22; Abdel Haleem, 593.
56 Al-Ṭabarī, Jāmi’ al-Bayān ‘an Ta’wīl āy al-Qur’ān, (al-Rabāṭ: Dār Hajr lil-Ṭibāʻah wal-Nashr, 2001), 24:341.
57 Sūrat al-Nisā’ 4:80; Abdel Haleem, 92.
58 Sūrat al-‘Ankabūt 29:18; Abdel Haleem, 399.
59 Sūrat al-Naḥl 16:35; Abdel Haleem, 272.
60 Sūrat al-Nūr 24:54; Abdel Haleem, 358.
61 Sūrat al-Mā’idah 5:92; Abdel Haleem, 124.
62 Sūrat Yā Sīn 36:16-17; Abdel Haleem, 442.
63 Sūrat Yūnus 10:99; Abdel Haleem, 221.
64 Sūrat al-Mā’idah 5:48; Abdel Haleem, 117.
65 Ibn Qayyim al-Jawzīyah. Hidāyat al‐Ḥayārá. (Dimashq: Dār al-Qalam, 1996), 1:237.
66 Al-Ghazzālī, Iḥyā’ ‘Ulūm al-Dīn, 4:379.
67 Sūrat al-Tawbah 9:119; Abdel Haleem, 207.
68 Sūrat Maryam 19:41; Abdel Haleem, 309.
69 Sūrat Maryam 19:54; Abdel Haleem, 310.
70 Sūrat Maryam 19:56; Abdel Haleem, 310.
71 Al-Bukhārī, Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī, 1:37 #128.
72 Ibn Rajab, Jāmi’ al-‘Ulūm wal-Ḥikam, 2:336 #38.
73 Al-Ghazzālī, Iḥyā’ ‘Ulūm al-Dīn, 4:387.
74 Muslim, Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, 4:2103 #2607.
75 Al-Tirmidhī, Sunan al-Tirmidhī, 3:416 #1973; declared fair (ḥasan) by Al-Tirmidhī in his commentary.
76 Al-Ghazzālī, Iḥyā’ ‘Ulūm al-Dīn, 4:387-388.
77 Ibn al-Sarī, Kitāb al-Zuhd, 1:300 #530.
78 Shams al-Dīn Abū ’Abd Allāh al-Dhahabī. Siyar A’lām al-Nubalā’. (al-Qāhirah: Dār al-Ḥadīth, 2006), 11:465.
79 Ibn Mājah, Sunan Ibn Mājah, 2:1409 #4216; declared authentic (ṣaḥīḥ) by Al-Albānī in Ṣaḥīḥ al-Targhīb (al-Riyāḍ: Maktabat al-Maʻārif, 2000), 3:99 #2889.
80 Aḥmad ibn al-Ḥusayn al-Bayhaqī. Shu’ab al-Īmān. (al-Riyāḍ: Maktabat al-Rushd lil-Nashr wal-Tawzī’, 2003), 6:449 #4462.
81 Ibn Ḥanbal, Musnad Aḥmad, 20:343 #13048; declared fair (ḥasan) by Al-Albānī in Ṣaḥīḥ al-Targhīb 2:680 #2554.
82 Abū Nuʻaym Aḥmad ibn ’Abd Allāh al-Iṣbahānī. Ḥilyat al-Awliyā’ wa Ṭabaqāt al-Aṣfiyā’. (Miṣr: Maṭba’at al-Sa’ādah, 1974), 1:50.
83 Al-Thaʻlabī. Al-Kashf wal-Bayān ʻan Tafsīr al-Qur'ān. (Bayrut: Dār Iḥyā’ al-Turāth al-’Arabī, 2002), 1:144.
84 Muslim, Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, 1:78 #58.
85 Abū Nuʻaym, Ḥilyat al-Awliyā’, 7:82.
86 Sūrat al-Mā’idah 5:1; Abdel Haleem, 107.
87 Al-Nasā'ī, Sunan al-Nasā'ī, 8:104 #4995; declared authentic (ṣaḥīḥ) by Al-Albānī in Ṣaḥīḥ Sunan al-Nasāʼī (al-Riyāḍ: Maktabat al-Ma’ārif, 1998), 3:342 #5010.
88 Ibn Ḥanbal, Musnad Aḥmad, 19:376 #12383; declared fair (ḥasan) by Al-Arnāʼūṭ et al in their commentary.
89 Muḥammad ibn Ḥibbān. Ṣaḥīḥ Ibn Ḥibbān. (Bayrūt: Muʼassasat al-Risālah, 1988), 11:202 #4861; declared authentic (ṣaḥīḥ) by Ibn ’Abd al-Barr in al-Istidhkār (Bayrūt: Dār al-Kutub al-’Ilmīyah, 2000), 7:277.
90 Ibn Ḥanbal, Musnad Aḥmad, 17:490 #11402; declared authentic (ṣaḥīḥ) by Al-Arnā’ūṭ et al in their commentary.
91 Ibn Ḥanbal, Musnad Ahmad, 31:126 #18830; declared authentic (ṣaḥīḥ) by Al-Arnā’ūṭ et al in their commentary.
92 Muḥammad ibn Ibrāhīm al-Kalābādhī. Baḥr al-Fawāʼid al-Mashhūr bi-Maʻānī al-Akhbār. (Bayrūt: Dār al-Kutub al-’Ilmīyah, 1999), 1:129.
93 Muslim, Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, 1:74 #55.
94 Ibn Rajab, Jāmi’ al-‘Ulūm wal-Ḥikam, 1:215-216 #7.
95 Muḥammad ibn ’Alī ibn Daqīq. Sharḥ al-Arbaʻīn al-Nawawīyah. (Bayrūt: Muʼassasat al-Rayyān, 2003), 1:50 #7.
96 Ibn Hanbal, Musnad Aḥmad, 36:529 #22191; declared fair (ḥasan) by Al-Suyūṭī in al-Tanwīr Sharḥ al-Jāmi’ al-Ṣaghīr (al-Riyāḍ: Muḥammad Isḥāq Muḥammad Ibrāhīm, 2011), 8:10 #6021.
97 Ibn Abī Dunyā. Kitāb al-Amr bil-Maʻrūf. (al-Madīnah: Maktabat al-Ghurabā’ al-Atharīyah, 1997), 1:107 #71.
98 Al-Ṣanʻānī, al-Tanwīr Sharḥ al-Jāmi’ al-Ṣaghīr, 8:10 #6021.
99 Ibn Daqīq, Sharḥ al-Arbaʻīn al-Nawawīyah, 1:52 #7.
100 Muslim, Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, 1:67 #45.
101 Muslim, Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, 3:1472 #1844.
102 Al-Nawawī, Sharḥ al-Nawawī ‘alá Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, 12:233.
103 Al-Bukhārī, Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī, 1:21 #57.
104 Al-Ghazzālī, Iḥyā’ ‘Ulūm al-Dīn, 2:76.
105 Yaḥyá ibn Sharaf al-Nawawī. Al-Majmū’ Sharḥ al-Muhadhab. ([Bayrūt]: Dār al-Fikr), 12:117.
106 Yaḥyá ibn Sharaf al-Nawawī, Kitāb al-Arba’īn al-Nawawīyah wa Sharḥuh. ([Cairo]: Dār Ḥarā’ lil-Kitāb, 1987), 38.
107 Sūrat al-A’rāf 7:62; Abdel Haleem, 159.
108 Sūrat al-A’rāf 7:68; Abdel Haleem, 68.
109 Sūrat al-A’rāf 7:79; Abdel Haleem, 161.
110 Ibn Ḥajar, Fatḥ al-Bārī, 1:58.
111 ‘Alī ibn al-Ḥasan ibn ‘Asākir. Tārīkh Madīnat Dimashq. (Bayrūt: Dār al-Fikr, 1995), 23:465.
112 Al-Bukhārī, Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī, 9:71 #7179.
113 Ibn Abī Dunyā. al-Ikhlāṣ wal-Nīyah. (Dimashq: Dār al-Bashā’ir, 1992), 1:55 #28.
114 Abū Nuʻaym, Ḥilyat al-Awliyā’, 8:103.