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A powerful example of the change in beliefs was when the companions traveled to Egypt and the ruler of Egypt mocked them for being led by ʿUbādah ibn Ṣāmit, a Black companion. They responded to his racist comments saying, “Even though he is black, as you can see, he is the best in status among us. . . . Blackness is not something bad among us.” Details of the encounter can be found here: Omar Suleiman, “When the Sahaba Met a Racist King | Virtual Khutbah,” YouTube, June 5, 2020, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hiWMVOjkoLk
This subject is beyond the scope of this paper. It has been well-documented that many of the centers of learning in the Islamic empire were led by freed slaves of color. For example, ʿAtāʾ ibn Abī Rabāḥ, a Black scholar, was the intellectual leader of Mecca.
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Many scholars since the civil rights era have theorized that oppression is intersectional. Race, class, gender, religion, and other aspects of identity may overlap in discrimination.
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We first ran a hierarchical agglomerative clustering algorithm (Ward’s method) to determine the best cluster solution. K-means clustering was subsequently performed to fine-tune cluster homogeneity by reassigning cases to the optimal cluster.
Ovals represent latent variables that have been modeled using factor analysis. Rectangles are observed variables.
The five-cluster solution explained 57% of the variance.
The average perceived job discrimination for the Muslim central only/medium regard
profile was 2.52 compared to 3.39 for all other groups (out of five). This difference of .88 was statistically significant (t
= 4.1, p
Differences in perceived job discrimination, John Henryism, and self-esteem were statistically significant across the five profiles. T-tests were used to measure statistically significant differences (p < 0.001). Mental health was not significantly different across profiles.
Stata 15 was used to run the model. The model was estimated using full-information maximum-likelihood estimation (FIML). The model fit the data well. χ2
(101) = 231.98, RMSEA =.051, CFI =.93.
Standardized betas (B
) are interpreted as follows: a one standard deviation increase in Black centrality was associated with a .12 standard deviation increase in John Henryism, while controlling for all other variables in the model (i.e., holding the value of other variables at the average [mean] level). All significant coefficients meet the threshold of p
Black public regard had a statistically significant indirect effect on mental health. John Henryism fully mediated its effect on mental health.
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We investigated differences in perceptions of job discrimination and John Henryism as a function of age and did not find any differences.
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