The first Muslims in America were Black. Brought from the western and central coast of Africa, enslaved Black Muslims account for more than a third of the ancestors of Black Americans.[1] Today, Black Muslims still account for the largest racial group of Muslims in America, constituting more than a fifth of all Muslim Americans.[2] However, racial ideology, which has played a substantial role in the American sociocultural and political landscape, has continuously disadvantaged Black American communities and individuals in ways not experienced by other ethnic minority populations.[3] The enduring legacy of racialized oppression faced by Black Americans has translated into an unavoidable concern for racial identity among this population. Black Americans, including Muslims, are raced, like it or not.[4] As the systematic oppression of Black people in America continues, and as people of conscience continue to shed light on the innumerable acts of injustice they face, understanding what it means to be Black and Muslim is of utmost importance to the broader American Muslim community as a whole.[5] This research study is an empirical investigation into the identity and well-being of Black Muslims in America. 

Black Muslim Lives Matter

Black Muslim American identity

Identity, discrimination, and mental health

The present study



Analytic approach



Implications for Muslim communities


Appendix A