Being Black and Muslim in America: A Study on Identity and Well-Being
It is a peculiar sensation, this double-consciousness, this sense of always looking at one’s self through the eyes of others, of measuring one’s soul by the tape of a world that looks on in amused contempt and pity. One ever feels his twoness—an American, a Negro; two souls, two thoughts, two unreconciled strivings; two warring ideals in one dark body, whose dogged strength alone keeps it from being torn asunder.
Profiles of Black Muslim identity
Predictors of mental health and self-esteem
I'm a Black, immigrant, Muslim woman. The intersections in my identity make it impossible for me to ever rest. I'm always worried about some form of my identity and I feel a duty to always help.
Being a black Muslim can sometimes be a confusing feeling. Both demographics are very often disliked and have countless negative stereotypes associated with them. I've experienced racism from other Muslims and I've experienced Islamophobia.
Religiosity is a protective factor for Black Muslims
Ambiguous racial discrimination may play a central role in Black Muslim mental health outcomes
Impact of economic discrimination on Black Muslims
Blacks cannot close the racial wealth gap by changing their individual behavior—i.e., by assuming more “personal responsibility” or acquiring the portfolio management insights associated with “financially literacy”—if the structural sources of racial inequality remain unchanged. There are no actions that Black Americans can take unilaterally that will have much of an effect on reducing the racial wealth gap. For the gap to be closed, America must undergo a vast social transformation produced by the adoption of bold national policies, policies that will forge a way forward by addressing, finally, the long-standing consequences of slavery, the Jim Crow years that followed, and ongoing racism and discrimination that exist in our society today.
Black women are disproportionately impacted
The struggle for social justice must be championed with an Islamic ritualistic foundation
- How important is being Black/Muslim a part of your self-image?
- How important is being Black/Muslim a reflection of who you are?
- How good do you feel about Black people?
- How happy are you to be Black?
- How much does society view Blacks/Muslims people as valuable contributors?
- In general, how much do others respect Black/Muslim people?
- How much do you think racial discrimination might keep you from getting the job you want?
- How much do you believe, because of your race, that you will always have to work harder than others to prove yourself?
- My mind can’t be relaxed if I don’t know what will happen tomorrow.
- Uncertainty makes me uneasy, anxious, or stressed.
- How intimate do you consider your relationship with Allah?
- How much do you know about Prophet Muhammad?
- How religious do you consider yourself?
- How often do you read the Qur’an?
- How often do you study the traditions or history of your racial background?
- Knowledge of Black American Issues (Asked on a Likert scale of 1 to 4)