Jesus: A Foundation for Dialogue Between Muslims and Christians
For more on this topic, see Approaching Jesus as Muslims
Once Jesus was asked by the Pharisees when the kingdom of God was coming, and he answered, ‘The kingdom of God is not coming with things that can be observed; nor will they say, ‘Look, here it is!’ or ‘There it is!’ For, in fact, the kingdom of God is within you.’
Allah, there is no God but Him, the Living, the Sustainer. He has revealed the Book to you in truth, confirming what was before it, and He revealed the Torah and the Gospel.
Have faith in what I have revealed, confirming that which is already with you, and be not the first to deny it.
Say, ‘O People of the Book, come to a common word between us and you, that we will worship none but Allah and not associate anything with Him, nor take one another as lords instead of Allah.’ If they turn away, then say, ‘Bear witness that we are Muslims (surrendering to the will of Allah).’
One of the scribes came near and heard them disputing with one another, and seeing that he answered them well, he asked him, ‘Which commandment is the first of all’? Jesus answered, ‘The first is: Hear O Israel: The Lord our God, the Lord is One; you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind, and with all your strength. The second is this: You shall love your neighbor as yourself. There is no commandment greater than these.’
Then the scribe said to him, ‘You are right, Teacher; you have truly said that He is One, and besides Him there is no other; and to love Him with all the heart, and with all the understanding, and with all the strength, and to love one’s neighbor as oneself—this is much more important than all whole burnt offerings and sacrifices.’ When Jesus saw that he answered wisely, he said to him, ‘You are not far from the kingdom of God.’ After that no one dared to ask him any question.
Muslims and Christians together make up well over half of the world’s population. Without peace and justice between these two religious communities, there can be no meaningful peace in the world. The future of the world depends on peace between Muslims and Christians. The basis for this peace already exists. It is part of the very foundational principles of both faiths: love of the One God, and love of the neighbor.
Whilst Islam and Christianity are obviously different religions—and whilst there is no minimizing some of their formal differences—it is clear that the Two Greatest Commandments are an area of common ground and a link between the Qur’an, the Torah, and the New Testament. What prefaces the Two Commandments in the Torah and the New Testament, and what they arise out of, are the Unity of God—that there is only One God… Thus the Unity of God, love of Him, and love of the neighbor form a common ground upon which Islam, Christianity, and Judaism are founded.
Say, ‘We have faith in Allah, what has been revealed to us, and what was revealed to Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, and the tribes (of Israel), and what was given to Moses and Jesus and what was given to the Prophets from their Lord. We make no distinction between any of them, and we are Muslims (in surrender) to Him.’
Then the king will say to those at his right hand, ‘Come, you that are blessed by my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world; for I was hungry and you gave me food, I was thirsty and you gave me something to drink, I was a stranger and you welcomed me, I was naked and you gave me clothing, I was sick and you took care of me, I was in prison and you visited me.’
Then the righteous will answer him, ‘Lord, when was it that we saw you hungry and gave you food, or thirsty and gave you something to drink? And when was it that we saw you a stranger and welcomed you, or naked and gave you clothing? And when was it that we saw you sick or in prison and visited you?’ And the king will answer them, ‘Truly I tell you, just as you did it to one of the least of these who are members of my family, you did it to me.’
Verily, Allah Almighty will say on the Day of Resurrection, ‘O son of Adam, I was sick but you did not visit Me.’ He will say, ‘My Lord, how can I visit you when you are the Lord of the worlds?’ Allah will say, ‘Did you not know that my servant was sick and you did not visit him, and had you visited him you would have found Me with him? O son of Adam, I asked you for food but you did not feed Me.’ He will say, ‘My Lord, how can I feed you when you are the Lord of the worlds?’ Allah will say, ‘Did you not know that my servant asked you for food but you did not feed him, and had you fed him you would have found Me with him? O son of Adam, I asked you for drink but you did not provide for Me.’ He will say, ‘My Lord, how can I give you drink when you are the Lord of the worlds?’ Allah will say, ‘My servant asked you for a drink but you did not provide for him, and had you given it to him you would have found Me with him.’
Ja’far said, ‘O king! We were a people in the depths of ignorance. We adored idols, we ate dead bodies, we lived in immorality, we cut off our families, we were evil to our neighbors, and the strong among us consumed the weak. We were like this until Allah raised a Messenger from among us. We recognized his lineage, his truthfulness, his trustworthiness, and his temperance. He called us to Allah Almighty, that we worship Him exclusively and renounce what we used to worship besides Him of stone statues and idols. He commanded us to be honest in speech, to fulfill the trust, to maintain family ties, to be good to the neighbor, and to refrain from adultery and bloodshed. He prohibited us from vulgarity, telling lies, consuming the wealth of the orphan, and slandering chaste women. He commanded us to worship Allah alone and not associate anything with Him (in worship). He commanded us to pray, to give charity, and to fast. He enumerated the matters of Islam, so we believed in him and had faith in him. We followed him in what he brought, so we worshipped Allah alone and did not associate anything with Him. We forbid what was forbidden for us and we permit what was permitted for us. Our people rose in enmity against us, tortured us and persecuted us to turn us back from our religion to the worship of idols among the servants of Allah…’
The Negus said to them, ‘Do you have anything with you from Allah?’ Ja’far said yes. The Negus said, ‘Then recite it to us.’ Ja’far recited the opening verses of Surat Maryam. The Negus began to weep until his beard was soaked, as well as his bishops wept until they soaked their pages, when they heard what was recited to them. Then the Negus said, ‘Verily, this chapter and what has come from Moses have emerged from the same light. You are released. By Allah, I will never surrender them.’
Blessed is he whose speech is the remembrance of Allah, whose silence is reflection, and whose observation is a lesson, who controls his tongue, whose house is sufficient, who weeps for his sins, and from whose evil the people are safe. O son of Adam, be disinterested in what people own and they will love you, be content with what Allah has allotted for you and you will be the wealthiest of people, love for people what you love for yourself and you will be a believer, do not harm your neighbor and you will be a Muslim, and do not laugh too much as it will deaden the heart.
A mention of the mercy of your Lord to His servant Zechariah, as he called upon his Lord in private, saying, ‘My Lord, my bones have weakened and my hair has turned gray, and I have never been disappointed in Your supplication, my Lord. Verily, I fear successors after me and my wife has become barren, so grant me an heir from Yourself, who will inherit me and the house of Jacob, and make him pleasing to my Lord.’
It was said, ‘O Zechariah, we give you glad tidings of a son whose name is John. We have not given anyone before him this name.’ Zechariah said, ‘My Lord, how will I have a son and my wife has become barren and I have become very old?’ It was said, ‘Thus said your Lord. It is easy for Him, as He had created you before when you were not yet a thing.’ Zechariah said, My Lord, make a sign for me.’ He said, ‘Your sign is that you will not speak to people for three nights, although in good health.’
So he came out to his people from the chamber and inspired them to glorify Allah morning and evening. It was said, ‘O John, hold fast to the Book with strength,’ and We gave him wise judgment even as a child, and tenderness from Us and purity, he was ever righteous and dutiful to his parents, and he was not an obstinate tyrant. Peace be upon him the day he was born, the day he dies, and the day he is brought back to life.
John the baptizer appeared in the wilderness, proclaiming a baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sins. And people from the whole Judean countryside and all the people of Jerusalem were going out to him, and were baptized by him in the river Jordan, confessing their sins.
O you who have faith, when you stand for prayer, then wash your faces and your arms to the elbows, and wipe over your heads and wash your feet to the ankles. If you are in a state of ritual impurity, then purify yourselves.
When a Muslim or a believer washes his face in ablution, then every sin that he committed with his eyes will be washed away with the last drop of water. When he washes his hands, then every sin that he committed with his hands will be washed away with the last drop of water. When he washes his feet, then every sin that he committed with his feet will be washed away with the last drop of water, until he emerges purified from sin.
Verily, Allah chose Adam, Noah, the family of Abraham, and the family of ‘Imran over the worlds, descendants of one another, and Allah is Hearing and Knowing. As the wife of ‘Imran said, ‘My Lord, I have pledged to Your service what is in my womb, so accept it from me. Verily, You are the Hearing, the Knowing.’ When she delivered her, she said, ‘Verily, I have given birth to a female.’ And Allah knows best what she had birthed, for the male is not like the female. She said, ‘Verily, I will name her Mary and I seek refuge in You on behalf of her and her children from the accursed Satan.’
Mention in the Book, Mary, when she withdrew from her family to a place toward the east. She veiled herself in seclusion from them. Then We sent to her Our Angel in the form of a well-proportioned man. She said, ‘Verily, I seek refuge in the Most Merciful from you, if you fear Allah!’ He said, ‘I am only the messenger of your Lord to deliver news of a pure son.’ She said, ‘How can I have a boy while no man has touched me and I have not been unchaste?’ He said, ‘Thus it is so, your Lord says, ‘It is easy for Me, and We will make him a sign to the people and a mercy from Us. It is a matter already decreed.’
The pains of childbirth drove her to the trunk of a palm tree. She said, ‘Would that I had died before this and been a thing forgotten!’ Then he (the angel) called from below her, ‘Do not be sad, for your Lord has provided a stream beneath you. Shake the trunk of the palm tree towards you and ripe dates will fall upon you. Eat, drink, and be comforted.’
Then she brought him to her people, carrying him. They said, ‘O Mary, you have done something unheard of! O sister of Aaron, your father was not an evil man, nor was your mother unchaste!’ Thus she pointed to him, and they said, ‘How can we speak to a babe in the cradle?’ Jesus said, ‘Verily, I am the servant of Allah. He has given me the Book and made me a prophet. He has made me blessed wherever I am and has enjoined prayer and charity upon me for as long as I live, and to be dutiful to my mother and He has not made me an obstinate tyrant. Peace is upon me the day I was born, the day I will die, and the day I am raised to life.’
When I came to Najran, the Christian monks asked me, ‘You recite the verse: O sister of Aaron (19:28), whereas Moses was born long before Jesus by many years.’ When I came back to the Messenger of Allah ﷺ, I asked him about it and he said, ‘Verily, they would name people with the names of prophets and righteous people before them.’
Allah strikes an example for those who have faith… Mary, daughter of ‘Imran, who preserved her chastity. Thus, We blew into (her garment) from Our Spirit. She believed in the words of her Lord and His Books, and she was devoutly obedient.
It has been related from Al-Ash’ari that those among women who achieved prophethood are six: Eve, Sarah, the mother of Moses, Hagar, Asiyah (the wife of Pharaoh), and Mary. The criterion of prophethood for him is that whomever an angel came to from Allah with a judgment related to a command, a prohibition, or a sign of what is to come, then they are considered to be a prophet.
As the angels said, ‘O Mary, Allah gives you glad tidings of a word from Him, whose name will be the Messiah, Jesus the son of Mary, distinguished in this world and the Hereafter and among those near (to Allah).’
And she who guarded her chastity, so We blew into (her garment) from Our Spirit, and We made her and her son a sign for the worlds.
Whoever testifies that there is no God but Allah alone without any partners, and that Muhammad is his servant and his messenger, and that Jesus is the servant of Allah, son of his maidservant, His word which He bestowed upon Mary and a spirit from Him, and that Paradise is the truth and Hellfire is the truth, then Allah will admit him into any of the eight gates of Paradise he wishes.
Thus when I have formed (Adam) and blew into him from My Spirit, then fall down in prostration to him.
We gave Jesus, the son of Mary, clear evidence and supported him with the Holy Spirit.
Mary said, “My Lord, how will I have a child when no man has touched me?” The angel said, “Such is Allah, for He creates what He wills. When He decrees a matter, He only says to it, 'Be,' and it is. He will teach him writing, wisdom, the Torah, and the Gospel, a messenger to the Children of Israel, saying, 'Verily, I have come to you with a sign from your Lord, that I create for you the form of a bird from clay, then I breathe into it and it becomes a bird with permission of Allah. I cure the blind and the leper, and I give life to the dead, with permission of Allah. I tell you what you eat and what you store in your houses. Verily, in that is a sign for you, if you are believers.’”
As Allah will say, “O Jesus, son of Mary, remember My favor upon you and your mother when I strengthened you with the Holy Spirit and you spoke to the people in the cradle and in maturity, when I taught you writing, wisdom, the Torah, and the Gospel, when you created the form of a bird from clay with My permission, then you breathed into it and it became a bird with My permission. You healed the blind and the leper with My permission, and when you brought forth the dead with My permission, and when I held back the Children of Israel from you as you came to them with clear evidence, yet those who disbelieved among them said, ‘This is clearly nothing but magic!’”
As the disciples said, ‘O Jesus, son of Mary, is your Lord able to send down a table of food for us from the heavens?’ Jesus said, ‘Fear Allah, if you are believers.’ They said, ‘We want to eat from it and put our hearts at rest and know that you have spoken the truth, that we will witness to it.’ Jesus, son of Mary, said, ‘O Allah, our Lord, send down upon us a table of food from the heavens, to be a festival for the first and the last of us, a sign from You. Provide for us, as You are the Best of Providers.’
Allah said, ‘Verily, I will send it down to you, but whoever disbelieves among you afterwards I will indeed punish him the likes of which I have not punished anyone in the worlds.’
I saw the Messenger of Allah ﷺ during the afternoon prayer and the people were asking for water to perform ablution but they could not find it. Some water was brought to the Messenger of Allah and he placed his hand in the vessel and ordered people to perform ablution. I saw water sprouting from his fingers and the people performed ablution until even the last person could do it.
Then Jesus said to them, ‘Prophets are not without honor, except in their hometown, and among their own kin, and in their own house.’ And he could do no deed of power there, except that he laid his hands on a few sick people and cured them. And he was amazed at their unbelief.
I asked my Lord a question I wish I had not asked. I said, ‘O Lord, there were messengers before me, among them those for whom you subordinated the wind and among them those who resurrected the dead.’ Allah said, ‘Did I not find you as an orphan and give you refuge? Did I not find you lost and guide you? Have I not opened your heart and lifted your burdens?’ I said, ‘Of course, O Lord.’
The miracles of every prophet in his time were appropriate to the people in that time. It is mentioned that Moses, upon him be peace, had miracles appropriate to his time, as they had been skilled in occult magical arts. So he was sent with signs that dazzled the sights and humbled the necks...
Likewise, Jesus, son of Mary was sent in a time of many wise doctors, so he was sent with miracles they could not perform or understand how to do. That a doctor cures the unseeing suffering from blindness, and the leper and the outcast, and whoever was chronically ill; how can anyone of the creation make the dead rise from their graves? This was known to everyone as a miracle indicating the truthfulness of the one who did it and the power with which he was sent.
Likewise, Muhammad ﷺ was sent in a time of eloquence and rhetoric, so Allah revealed to him the Mighty Qur’an, which contains no falsehood within it, a revelation from the Wise, the Praiseworthy.
Say, ‘He is Allah, the One, Allah the Eternal Refuge. He neither begets nor is He begotten, nor is there anyone equal to Him.’
...a term occasionally found in Jewish literature, biblical and post-biblical, but nowhere implying physical descent of a human from the Godhead… The application of the term to Jesus by the early Christian church was probably a combination of the metaphorical use of the term in Jewish apocryphal literature with the more material conception of the divine man (theios anēr) common in surrounding cultures of the day.
In the Synoptic Gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke), Jesus never speaks of himself as Son of God, and rarely, if ever, as Son. Cullmann speaks of Jesus’ ‘reserve’ in using this title, and points out that his primary designation for himself was not ‘Son of God’ but ‘Son of Man.’ ‘Son of God’ was said about Jesus by others, demoniacs, disciples, the high priest, and the crowds at the cross. But Jesus himself clearly wished to avoid the misunderstandings that might be attached to this title, ideas that expressed wrong notions of the Messiah.
What good is it, my brothers and sisters, if you say you have faith but do not have works? Can faith save you? If a brother or sister is naked and lacks daily food, and one of you says to them, ‘Go in peace; keep warm and eat your fill,’ and yet you do not supply their bodily needs, what is the good of that? So faith by itself, if it has no works, is dead. But someone will say, ‘You have faith and I have works.’ Show me your faith apart from your works, and I by my works will show you my faith.
O people of Book, do not exaggerate in your religion, nor say anything about Allah but the truth. Verily, the Messiah, Jesus the son of Mary, was only a messenger of Allah, His word bestowed upon Mary, and a spirit from Him. Have faith in Allah and His messengers and do not say, ‘Three.’ Desist, for it will be better for you. Verily, Allah is only one God. He is Exalted above having a son. To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and the earth, and sufficient is Allah as a Trustee. The Messiah would never disdain to be a servant of Allah, nor would the angels brought near.
As Allah will say, ‘O Jesus, son of Mary, did you say to the people: Take me and my mother as gods besides Allah?’ He will say, ‘Glory be to You! It was not for me to say what I have no right to say. If I had said so, You would know it. You know what is within me and I do not know what is within You. Verily, You alone know the Unseen. I said nothing but what You commanded me, to worship Allah, my Lord and your Lord. I was a witness for as long as I was with them, but when You took me it was You who watched over them. You are a witness over all things. If You punish them, then they are Your servants. And if You forgive them, then You are the Almighty, the Wise.’
He was oppressed, and he was afflicted, yet he did not open his mouth; like a lamb that is led to the slaughter, and like a sheep that before its shearers is silent, so he did not open his mouth. By a perversion of justice he was taken away.
And for their saying, ‘Verily, we killed the Messiah, Jesus, the son of Mary, the messenger of Allah.’ They did not kill him, nor did they crucify him, but rather it was made to appear to them (wa ma qataluhu wa ma salabuhu wa lakin shubbiha lahum). Verily, those who disagree over it are in doubt regarding it. They have no knowledge of it but are only following assumptions. They did not kill him, with certainty. Allah raised him up unto Himself, for Allah is ever Mighty, Wise.
The Jewish leader ordered a man to enter the house, it was said to Judas (or it is said, Tatianos). Then Gabriel, upon him be peace, came and raised Jesus, upon him be peace, up to the heavens. When the man entered the house, they did not find him. Allah cast the likeness of Jesus over him, and when he exited they thought he was Jesus, so they killed and crucified him.
Jesus came with seventy disciples with him to a house and they were surrounded. When they had entered, Allah cast the image of Jesus over all of them. They said to them, ‘You have bewitched us! Present Jesus to us, or else we will kill you all!’ Jesus said to his companions, ‘Who among you will purchase Paradise with his life today?’ A man among them said, ‘I will.’ He went out to them and said, ‘I am Jesus,’ and Allah had cast the image of Jesus over him. They took him, killed him, and crucified him.
It is possible that the likeness made to appear was the report that he was killed, rather than his image cast upon another who was really killed. That is mentioned in some of the stories, that when they sought him in that house they did not find him and none of them were absent. They said, ‘We killed him,’ because they said he entered the house and they entered after him and did not find him. That was to inform them of the great signs of his Messengership. They did not like to say that, so they falsely said ‘We killed him.’ That is what was made to appear to them. And Allah knows best.
It is said that his appearance was not cast over anyone. Indeed, the meaning of ‘But it was made to appear to them,’ is that the angel of illusion obscured it to them so as to remain in place of one from their number who was missing. They rushed to crucify that one and the people threw off their suspicion of it. He said, ‘This is Jesus.’ It is befitting for this opinion to be believed regarding His saying, ‘But it was made to appear to them.’ As for the opinion that his likeness was cast over a person, it is not authentically reported from the Messenger of Allah ﷺ such that it can be relied upon. The differences regarding upon whom his image was cast are great.
If you ask what is the verb ‘appeared’ attributed to? Then if you attribute it to the Messiah, the Messiah would be a likeness but he was not a likeness. If you attribute it to the one killed, then the one killed is not mentioned. I say: It is attributed to the genitive case and it is like your saying ‘they were made to believe it.’
When Allah informed Jesus the son of Mary that he would soon be departing this world, he was disheartened by death and sorely grieved. So he called the disciples for a meal which he had prepared for them. Jesus said, ‘Come to me tonight, for I have a favor to ask of you.’ When they had come together at night, Jesus served them himself. When they had finished eating, Jesus washed their hands and helped them perform their ablutions with his own hands, and he wiped their hands and garments. The disciples regarded this as beneath the master’s dignity and they disapproved, but Jesus said, ‘Anyone who opposes me in what I do tonight is not from me and I am not from him.’So they agreed and Jesus said, ‘As for what I have done for you this night, serving you at a table and washing your hands with my own hands, let that be an example to you. You regard me as the best of you, so let not one among you regard himself as better than the others. Let each one of you offer his life for the others just as I have laid down my life for you. The favor for which I have called you is that you pray earnestly that Allah will extend my term.’ When they stood up for prayer, wishing to prolong their earnest supplications, they were overcome by sleep and they were unable to pray. Jesus said, ‘Glory be to Allah! Can you not be patient with me one night and support me?’ They said, ‘We do not know what overcame us. We would stay up in the night for long prayers but tonight we cannot help but sleep. Whatever supplication we wish to make, we are prevented from saying it.’ Then Jesus said, ‘The shepherd will be taken away and the sheep will be scattered.’ And Jesus continued to lament his end. He said, ‘In truth, I say to you, one of you will deny me three times before the rooster crows, and another will sell me for a few pieces of silver and consume my price.’ After this, they went out, each his own way, and they left him. The Jews then came seeking him and they seized Simon, saying, ‘He is one of his companions!’ but he denied it, saying, ‘I am not his companion!’ Others also seized him and he again denied. Then he heard the crowing of a rooster, and he wept bitterly. The next morning one of the disciples went to the Jews and he said, ‘What will you give me if I lead you to the Christ?’ They gave him thirty pieces, which he took and led them to Jesus. Before that it had been made to appear to them. Thus, they seized him, fettered him, and tied him with a rope and they dragged him, saying, ‘You raised the dead and cast out Satan and healed those who were possessed! Can you not save yourself from this rope?’ They spat on him and placed thorns upon his head until they brought him to the piece of wood upon which they wished to crucify him, but Allah raised him up to Himself and they crucified what was made to appear for them. He remained for seven hours and his mother and the woman whom Jesus cured from madness came to weep in the place of the crucifixion. Jesus came to them and said, ‘For whom do you weep?’ They said, ‘For you!’ Jesus said, ‘Verily, Allah has raised me unto Himself and nothing befell me except goodness, for this is something which was made to appear to them. Go now and tell the disciples to meet me at such-and-such place.’ There were eleven who met him and the disciple who sold him and led the Jews to him was missing. Jesus asked his companions about him and they said, ‘He regretted what he did, so he hanged himself.’ Jesus said, ‘Had he repented, Allah would surely have turned toward him.’
The matter of Jesus was hidden from them, he was raised up, and the one killed was changed into his image after his companions fled. They had heard Jesus in the night announce his death and lament because he had thought his death had been revealed. They related what occurred to them as the truth, yet the matter with Allah in reality was different from what they related, so those who related it among the disciples do not deserve to be accused of lying, as what they related appeared outwardly as the truth.
I entered the house of Uthman on the day he was under siege and I said, “O leader of the believers, I have come to give support or fight.” Uthman said, “O Abu Hurayrah, would it please you to ‘kill the people altogether’ (5:32) including me?” I said no. Uthman said, “By Allah, if you have killed one man, then it is as if you have killed all the people.” So I returned and I did not fight.
As Allah said, ‘O Jesus, I will take you and raise you unto Myself, purify you from those who disbelieve, and make those who follow you greater than those who disbelieve until the Day of Resurrection. Then unto Me will you return, and I will judge between you over your differences.’
By Allah, the son of Mary will descend as a just ruler. He will abolish the cross, kill the swine, and annul the tribute, but he will leave the she-camel such that no one collects from it. He will cause rancor, hatred, and envy to disappear, and he will call people to give their wealth in charity but no one will need it.
Jesus the son of Mary, upon him be peace, will descend and the leader will invite him to lead the prayer but he will say, ‘No, some of you are leaders over others and this is an honor for this nation.’
Hasten to perform good deeds before seven events: Are you waiting for poverty that makes you forgetful? Or wealth that burdens you? Or a debilitating disease or senility? Or an unexpected death or the False Messiah? Or is it evil in the unseen you are waiting for? Or the Hour itself? The Hour will be bitter and terrible.
 The Qur'ān, Sūrat al-Aḥqāf 46:35.
 Luke 17:20-21; Michael D. Coogan, Marc Z. Brettler, Carol A. Newsom, and Pheme Perkins, The New Oxford Annotated Bible: With the Apocrypha (New York: Oxford University Press, 2010), 1863.
 Matthew 23:1-36.
 The Qur'ān, Sūrat Āli ‘Imrān 3:2-3; all translations of the Qur’an and Arabic texts are by the author.
 The Qur'ān, Sūrat al-Baqarah 2:41.
 The Qur'ān, Sūrat Āli ‘Imrān 3:64.
 Mark 12:28-34; Coogan et al., The New Oxford Annotated Bible, 1815.
 Muslim readers might be interested to note that the Semitic cognate of "hear" shema in Hebrew is samia’ in Arabic שְׁמַע = اسمع because the s in Arabic maps to the sh in Hebrew; e.g., salaam = shalom.
 Deuteronomy 6:4-5; Coogan et al., The New Oxford Annotated Bible, 262.
 Leviticus 19:18; Coogan et al., The New Oxford Annotated Bible, 171.
 Miroslav Volf, Muhammad Ghazi, and Melissa Yarrington, A Common Word: Muslims and Christians on Loving God and Neighbor (Michigan: William B Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2010), 28.
 Volf et al,, A Common Word: Muslims and Christians on Loving God and Neighbor, 45-46.
 The Qur'ān, Sūrat al-Baqarah 2:136.
 The Qur'ān, Sūrat al-Baqarah 2:253.
 Muslim, Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim ([Bayrūt]: Dār Iḥyāʼ al-Kutub al-ʻArabīyah, 1955), 4:1845 #2374, kitab al-Fada’il bab min fada’il Musa sall Allahu alayhi wa salam.
 al-Bukhārī, Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī (Bayrūt: Dār Ṭawq al-Najjāh, 2002), 8:108 #6517, kitab al-Riqaq bab nafkh al-sur.
 Muslim, Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, 4:1839 #2369, kitab al-Fada’il bab min fada’il Ibrahim al-Khalil sall Allahu alayhi wa salam.
 Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal, Musnad al-Imām Aḥmad Ibn Ḥanbal (Bayrūt: Mu’assasat al-Risālah, 2001), 21:353 #13874; declared authentic (ṣaḥīḥ) by Al-Arnā’ūṭ et al. in their commentary.
 Muslim, Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, 3:1472 #1844, kitab al-Imarah bab al-amr bi al-wafa’ bi bay’ah al-khulafa’.
 Ibn Mājah, Sunan Ibn Mājah (Bayrūt: Dār Iḥyā’ al-Turāth al-’Arabī), 2:1414 #4229, kitab al-Zuhd bab al-wara’ wa al-taqwa; declared authentic (ṣaḥīḥ) by Al-Albānī in the commentary.
 Justin Parrott, “The Golden Rule in Islam: Ethics of Reciprocity in Islamic Traditions,” MRes diss., University of Wales Trinity Saint David, 2018. https://archive.nyu.edu/bitstream/2451/43458/2/The%20Golden%20Rule%20in%20Islam_FINAL.pdf
 Abū Nuʻaym, Ḥilyat al-Awliyā’ wa Ṭabaqāt al-Aṣfiyā’ (Miṣr: Maṭba’at al-Sa’ādah, 1974), 3:10.
 Muslim, Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, 4:1837 #2365, kitab al-Fada’il bab fada’il ‘Isa alayhi salam.
 Matthew 5:7; Coogan et al., The New Oxford Annotated Bible, 1753.
 al-Tirmidhī, Sunan al-Tirmidhī (Bayrūt: Dār al-Ġarb al-Islāmī, 1998), 3:388 #1924, abawab al-Birr wal Sillah bab ma ja’a fi rahmah al-Muslimin; declared authentic (ṣaḥīḥ) by Al-Tirmidhī in the commentary.
 Matthew 6:14; Coogan et al., The New Oxford Annotated Bible, 1755.
 Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal, Al-Musnad (al-Qāhirah: Dār al-Ḥadīth, 1995), 6:113 #6541; declared authentic (ṣaḥīḥ) by Ahmad Shakir in the commentary.
 Matthew 25:34-40; Coogan et al., The New Oxford Annotated Bible, 1784-1785.
 Muslim, Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, 4:1990 #2569, kitab al-Birr wal Sillah wal Adab bab fadl ‘iyadah al-marid.
 Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal, Musnad al-Imām Aḥmad Ibn Ḥanbal, 37:172-173 #22498; declared fair (ḥasan) by Al-Arnā’ūṭ et al. in their commentary.
 Justin Parrott, “Abrogated Rulings in the Qur’an: Discerning their Divine Wisdom,” Yaqeen Institute for Islamic Research, November 15, 2018. https://yaqeeninstitute.org/en/justin-parrott/abrogated-rulings-in-the-quran-discerning-their-divine-wisdom/
 al-Bukhārī, Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī, 4:170 #3461, kitab Ahadith al-Anbiya’ bab ma dhukira ‘an Bani Isra’il.
 Ibn Ḥajar al-’Asqalānī, Fatḥ al-Bārī bi-Sharḥ al-Bukhārī (Bayrūt: Dār al-Maʻrifah, 1959), 6:499.
 Walid Saleh, In Defense of the Bible: A Critical Edition and an Introduction to Al-Biqāʻī's Bible Treatise (Leiden: Brill, 2008) 1-2.
 Abū Ḥātim al-Rāzī, Al-Zuhd (al-Riyāḍ: Dār Aṭlas, 2000), 1:67 #76.
 Tarif Khalidi, The Muslim Jesus: Sayings and Stories in Islamic Literature (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2003), 32.
 Ibn ’Asākir, Tārīkh Madīnat Dimashq (Bayrūt: Dār al-Fikr, 1995), 47:439.
 Ibn Kathīr, Tafsīr al-Qur’ān al-‘Aẓīm (Bayrūt: Dār al-Kutub al-ʻIlmīyah, 1998), 6:266 verse 29:69.
 Shabir Ally, The Culmination of Tradition-Based Tafsir the Qur'an Exegesis "al-Durr Al-Manthur" of Al-Suyuti (d. 911/1505). (Ottawa: Library and Archives Canada = Bibliothèque et Archives Canada, 2013), 180-224.
 The Qur'ān, Sūrat Maryam 19:1-15.
 Isaiah 40:3; Coogan et al., The New Oxford Annotated Bible, 1019-1020.
 Mark 1:4-5; Coogan et al., The New Oxford Annotated Bible, 1792-1793.
 The Qur'ān, Sūrat al-Mā’idah 5:6.
 Muslim, Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, 1:215 #244, kitab al-Taharah bab khuruj al-khataya min al-ma’ al-wudu’.
 The Qur'ān, Sūrat Āli ‘Imrān 3:33-36.
 al-Bukhārī, Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī, 4:164 #3431, bab qawl Allah ta’ala wadhkur fil Kitabi Maryam.
 al-Nawawī, Sharḥ al-Nawawī ‘alá Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, 15:120 #2366.
 The Qur'ān, Sūrat Maryam 19:16-21.
 The Qur'ān, Sūrat Maryam 19:23-26.
 The Qur'ān, Sūrat Maryam 19:27-33
 Muslim, Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, 3:1685 #2135, kitab al-Adab bab al-nahi ‘an al-takanni bi Abi al-Qasim.
 Ibn Kathīr, Tafsīr al-Qur’ān al-‘Aẓīm, 5:201 verse 19:28.
 al-Bukhārī, Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī, 4:164 #3432, bab wa idh qalat al-mala’ikah ya Maryam.
 The Qur'ān, Sūrat al-Taḥrīm 66:12.
 Ibn Ḥajar al-’Asqalānī, Fatḥ al-Bārī bi-Sharḥ al-Bukhārī, 6:447.
 Hosn Abboud and Angelika Neuwirth, Mary in the Qurʼan: A Literary Reading (London: Routledge, 2014), 157.
 The Qur'ān, Sūrat Āli ‘Imrān 3:45.
 The Qur'ān, Sūrat al-Anbiyā’ 21:91.
 al-Bukhārī, Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī, 4:165 #3435, bab qawlihi ya Ahl al-Kitab la taghlu fi dinikum.
 1 Samuel 16:13; Coogan et al., The New Oxford Annotated Bible, 424.
 Matthew 1:1; Coogan et al., The New Oxford Annotated Bible, 1748.
 al-Ṭabarī, Jāmiʻ al-Bayān ‘an Ta’wīl al-Qur’ān, 6:414 verse 3:45.
 Ibn Kathīr, Tafsīr al-Qur’ān al-‘Aẓīm, 2:36 verse 3:45.
 Abū al-Layth al-Samarqandī, Tafsīr al-Samarqandī, al-Musammá, Baḥr al-‘Ulūm (Bayrūt: Dār al-Kutub al-’Ilmīyah, 1993), 1:213 verse 3:45.
 The Qur'ān, Sūrat Āli ‘Imrān 3:59.
 al-Ṭabarī, Jāmiʻ al-Bayān ‘an Ta’wīl al-Qur’ān, 6:411 verse 3:45.
 al-Nawawī, Sharḥ al-Nawawī ‘alá Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim (Bayrūt: Dār Iḥyā’ al-Turāth al-’Arabī, 1972), 1:227.
 The Qur'ān, Sūrat al-Ḥijr 15:29.
 The Qur'ān, Sūrat al-Baqarah 2:87.
 al-Ṭabarī, Jāmiʻ al-Bayān ‘an Ta’wīl al-Qur’ān, 2:320 verse 2:87.
 Ibid., 2:321.
 The Qur'ān, Sūrat Āli ‘Imrān 3:47-49.
 The Qur'ān, Sūrat al-Mā’idah 5:110.
 Luke 7:22; Coogan et al., The New Oxford Annotated Bible, 1842.
 John 11:43-45; Coogan et al., The New Oxford Annotated Bible, 1902.
 The Qur'ān, Sūrat al-Mā’idah 5:112-114.
 al-Ṭabarī, Jāmiʻ al-Bayān ‘an Ta’wīl al-Qur’ān, 11:227 verse 5:114.
 Matthew 14:19-20; Coogan et al., The New Oxford Annotated Bible, 1768.
 The Qur'ān, Sūrat al-Mā’idah 5:115.
 ’Abd al-Raḥmān ibn Nāṣir al-Sa’dī, Taysīr al-Karīm al-Raḥmān fī Tafsīr Kalām al-Mannān (Bayrūt: Mu’assasat al-Risālah, 2000), 1:249 verse 5:115.
 Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal, Musnad al-Imām Aḥmad Ibn Ḥanbal, 4:59-60 #2165; declared authentic (ṣaḥīḥ) by Al-Arnā’ūṭ et al. in their commentary.
 Muslim, Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, 4:1783 #2279, kitab al-Fada’il bab mu’jizat al-Nabi sall Allahu alayhi wa salam.
 Mark 6:4-6; Coogan et al., The New Oxford Annotated Bible, 1802.
 The Qur'ān, Sūrat al-Ḍuḥá 93:6-7.
 The Qur'ān, Sūrat al-Sharḥ 94:1-2.
 Al-Ṭabarānī, Al-Muʻjam al-Awsaṭ (al-Qāhirah: Dār al-Ḥaramayn, 1995), 4:75 #3651; declared authentic (ṣaḥīḥ) by Albānī in Silsilat Al-Aḥādīth Al-Ṣaḥīḥah (al-Riyāḍ: Maktabat al-Ma’ārif, 1996), 6:86 #2538.
 Mohammad Elshinawy, “The Prophecies of the Prophet ﷺ: Proofs of Prophethood Series,” Yaqeen Institute for Islamic Research. April 9 2018. https://yaqeeninstitute.org/en/mohammad-elshinawy/the-prophecies-of-the-prophet-%EF%B7%BA-proofs-of-prophethood-series/
 Ibn Kathīr, Qiṣaṣ al-Anbiyā’ (al-Qāhirah: Maṭba’at Dār al-Ta’līf, 1968), 2:430.
 Al-Ṭaḥāwī and ’Alī ibn ’Alī Ibn Abī al-’Izz, Sharḥ al-‘Aqīdah al-Ṭaḥāwīyah (Bayrūt: Mu’assasat al-Risālah, 1997), 1:24.
 The Qur'ān, Sūrat al-Ikhlāṣ 112:1-4.
 The Qur'ān, Sūrat al-Shūrá 42:11.
 The Qur'ān, Sūrat Āli ‘Imrān 3:51.
 The Qur'ān, Sūrat Maryam 19:34-35.
 Exodus 4:22; Coogan et al., The New Oxford Annotated Bible, 88.
 Hosea 11:1; Coogan et al., The New Oxford Annotated Bible, 1271.
 Job 1:6; Coogan et al., The New Oxford Annotated Bible, 727.
 Wisdom of Solomon 2:12-13; Coogan et al., The New Oxford Annotated Bible, 1428.
 "Son of God." In The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion, edited by Berlin, Adele, and Maxine Grossman. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011. http://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780199730049.001.0001/acref-9780199730049-e-3011
 Edward G. Parrinder, Jesus in the Qurʼan (London: Oneworld, 2013), 128.
 John 1:12-13; Coogan et al., The New Oxford Annotated Bible, 1882.
 Muslim, Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, 4:2171 #2817, kitab siffat al-Jannah wal Nar bab lan yudkhilu ahad al-Jannah bi ‘amalihi.
 James 2:14-18; Coogan et al., The New Oxford Annotated Bible, 2122.
 The Qur'ān, Sūrat al-Nisā’ 4:171-172.
 The Qur'ān, Sūrat al-Mā’idah 5:116-118.
 al-Buhārī, Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī, 4:167 #3445, bab qawl Allah ta’ala wadhkur fil Kitabi Maryam.
 Isaiah 53:7-8; Coogan et al., The New Oxford Annotated Bible, 1039.
 The Qur'ān, Sūrat al-Nisā’ 4:157-158.
 Abū Ḥayyān, Al-Baḥr al-Muḥīt fī a-Tafsīr (Bayrūt: Dār al-Fikr, 1992), 4:125 verse 4:157.
 Abū al-Layth al-Samarqandī, Tafsīr al-Samarqandī, 1:354 verse 4:157.
 al-Thaʻlabī, Al-Kashf wal-Bayān ʻan Tafsīr al-Qurʼān (Bayrut: Dār Iḥyā’ al-Turāth al-’Arabī, 2002), 3:410 verse 4:157.
 al-Ṭabarī, Jāmiʻ al-Bayān ‘an Ta’wīl al-Qur’ān, 9:368 verse 4:157.
 Ibn Hishām, Al-Sīrah al-Nabawīyah ([al-Qāhirah]: Maktabat wa Maṭbaʻat Muṣṭafā al-Bābī al-Ḥalabī, 1955), 1:482.
 Muḥammad Rashīd Riḍā, Tafsīr al-Manār (al-Qāhirah: al-Hayʼah al-Miṣrīyah al-’Āmmah lil-Kitāb, 1990), 6:17 verse 4:157.
 See for example Ahmed Deedat, Crucifixion or Cruci-Fiction? (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: International Islamic Pub. House, 1997).
al-Māturīdī, Ta’wīlāt Ahl al-Sunnah: Tafsīr al-Māturīdī (Bayrūt: Dār al-Kutub al-’Ilmīyah, 2005), 3:410-411 verse 4:157.
 Abū Ḥayyān, Al-Baḥr al-Muḥīt fī a-Tafsīr, 4:126 verse 4:157.
 Wahbah al-Zuḥaylī, Al-Tafsīr al-Munīr (Bayrūt: Dār al-Fikr al-Mu’āṣir, 1997), 6:21 verse 4:157.
 al-Suyūṭī and Jalāl al-Dīn al-Maḥallī, Tafsīr al-Jalālayn (al-Qāhirah: Dār al-Ḥadīth, 2001), 1:131 verse 4:157.
 Todd Lawson, The Crucifixion and the Qur'an: A Study in the History of Muslim Thought (New York: Oneworld Publications, 2014), 7-8.
 al-Zamakhsharī, Al-Kashshāf ʻan Ḥaqāʼiq Ghawāmiḍ al-Tanzīl (Bayrūt: Dār al-Kitāb al-’Arabī, 1986), 1:587 verse 4:157.
 al-Baydạ̄wī, Anwār al-Tanzīl wa Asrār al-Ta’wīl al-Ma’rūf bi Tafsīr al-Baydạ̄wī (Bayrūt: Dār Ihỵāʼ al-Turāth al-’Arabī, 1998), 2:108 verse 4:157), 2:108 verse 4:157.
 al-Ṭabarī, Jāmiʻ al-Bayān ‘an Ta’wīl al-Qur’ān (Bayrūt: Mu’assasat al-Risālah, 2000), 9:368-369 verse 4:157.
 al-Ṭabarī, Jāmiʻ al-Bayān ‘an Ta’wīl al-Qur’ān, 9:375 verse 4:157.
 The Qur'ān, Sūrat al-Mā’idah 5:28.
 Matthew 26:52; Coogan et al., The New Oxford Annotated Bible, 1786.
 Abū Dāwūd, Sunan Abī Dāwūd (Ṣaydā, Lubnān: al-Maktabah al-Aṣrīyah, 1980), 4:209 #4641, kitab al-Sunnah bab fi al-Khulafa’.
 Sa’īd ibn Manṣūr, Sunan Sa’īd ibn Manṣūr (al-Hind: al-Dār al-Salafīyah, 1982), 2:386 #2937; declared “authentic” (ṣaḥīḥ) by Ahmad Shakir in ‘Umdat Al-Tafsīr ’an Ibn Kathīr (Miṣr: Dār al-Wafā’, 2005), 1:666 verse 5:32.
 Ibn Saʻd, Al-Ṭabaqāt al-Kubrá (Bayrūt: Dār al-Kutub al-’Ilmīyah, 1990), 3:59.
 Luke 14:27; Coogan et al., The New Oxford Annotated Bible, 1858.
 Ibn Kathīr, Al-Bidāyah wal-Nihāyah (al-Qāhirah: Dār Hajr, 1997), 2:514.
 al-Baydạ̄wī, Anwār al-Tanzīl wa Asrār al-Ta’wīl al-Ma’rūf bi Tafsīr al-Baydạ̄wī, 2:108 verse 4:157.
 Ibn Kathīr, Tafsīr al-Qur’ān al-‘Aẓīm, 2:39 verse 3:55.
 Mahmoud M. Ayoub, "Towards an Islamic Christology, II: the Death of Jesus, Reality or Delusion." The Muslim World. 70.2 (1980): 91-121, 117. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1478-1913.1980.tb03405.x
 Luke 23:34; Coogan et al., The New Oxford Annotated Bible, 1874-1875.
 Muslim, Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, 3:1417 #1792, kitab al-Jihad wal Siyar bab ghazwah Uhud.
 Ibn Ḥibbān, Ṣaḥīḥ Ibn Ḥibbān (Bayrūt: Mu’assasat al-Risālah, 1993), 3:254 #973, bab al-ad’iyyah ma yajib al-mar’a al-dua’ ‘ala a’daihi.
 The Qur'ān, Sūrat Āli ‘Imrān 3:55.
 al-Ṭabarī, Jāmiʻ al-Bayān ‘an Ta’wīl al-Qur’ān, 6:455-6 verse 3:55.
 al-Ṭabarī, Jāmiʻ al-Bayān ‘an Ta’wīl al-Qur’ān, 6:457 verse 3:55.
 al-Ṭabarī, Jāmiʻ al-Bayān ‘an Ta’wīl al-Qur’ān, 6:458 verse 3:55.
 Muslim, Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, 1:136 #155, kitab al-Iman bab nuzul ‘Isa ibn Maryam.
 Muslim, Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, 1:137 #156, kitab al-Iman bab nuzul ‘Isa ibn Maryam.
 Exodus 20:4; Coogan et al., The New Oxford Annotated Bible, 110.
 The Qur'ān, Sūrat Luqmān 31:34.
 al-Tirmidhī, Sunan al-Tirmidhī, 4:128 #2306; declared fair (ḥasan) by Al-Tirmidhī in the commentary.
 al-Munāwī, Fayḍ al-Qadīr: Sharḥ al-Jāmiʻ al-Ṣaghīr(Miṣr [Cairo]: al-Maktabah al-Tijārīyah al-Kubrá, 1938), 3:195.