Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī, bk. 8, hadith 128.
Adnan Ahmad Zulfiqar, “Collective Duties (Fard Kifayah) in Islamic Law: The Moral Community, State Authority, and Ethical Speculation in the Premodern Period” (PhD diss., University of Pennsylvania, 2018), 20–21.
Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World contains a very brief entry for the term. See A. Kevin Reinhart, “Farḍ al-Kifāyah,” Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World, ed. John L. Esposito (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009).
The expiation for breaking one’s oath is mentioned in the Qur’an 5:89.
Wājib can be further categorized from other perspectives, such as being strictly or relatively measured in the case of some financial obligations.
The Ḥanafī school of law differentiates between farḍ and wājib, as the first is based on a textual definitive evidence while the latter is based on implicit orders, making it speculative (ẓannī).
Tāj al-Dīn al-Subkī, al-Ashābh wa-al-naẓāʾir (Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmīyah, 1991), 2:89.
Ḥasan al-ʿAṭṭār, Ḥāshiyah ʿalá jamʿ al-jawāmiʿ (Cairo: Dār al-Baṣāʾir, 2009), 1:236.
Ibn Daqīq al-ʿĪd, Sharḥ al-ilmām bi-aḥādīth al-aḥkām (Damascus: Dār al-Nawādir, 2009), 2:45–46.
Muḥammad ibn Idrīs al-Shāfiʿī, al-Risālah (Cairo: Muṣṭafá al-Ḥalabī, 1940), 364–69.
Abū Ḥāmid Al-Ghazālī, al-Wasīṭ fī al-madhhab (Cairo: Dār al-Salām, 1997), 7:6–7.
Al-Subkī, al-Ashbāh wa-al-naẓāʾir, 90; Shihāb al-Dīn al-Qarāfī, Anwār al-burūq fī anwāʿ al-furūq (Cairo: Dār al-Salām, 2001), 1:234.
Al-Subkī, al-Ashbāh wa-al-naẓāʾir, 90.
Al-Qarāfī, al-Furūq, 1:234.
Jalāl al-Dīn al-Suyūṭī, al-Ashbāh wa-al-naẓāʾir, 7th ed. (Cairo: Dār al-Salām, 2018), 728–29.
Providing congregational prayers is essential to communal religious integrity. Living as minorities during the pandemic highlighted the difficulties of handling the closure of public prayers, where Islamic institutions took different approaches to accommodate the situation.
This farḍ kifāyah is obligatory upon men.
Al-Bayḍāwī, Anwār al-tanzīl wa-asrār al-taʾwīl (Beirut: Dār Iḥyāʾ al-Turāth al-ʿArabī, 2003), 3:75.
Nursing, like taking care of the sick, is initially the responsibility of the patient’s close relatives, close friends, neighbors, and then the rest of the community. Some Ḥanbalī scholars considered visiting the sick a farḍ kifāyah.
Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī, Fatḥ al-Bārī fī sharḥ Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī (Damascus: al-Risālah al-ʿAlamīyah, 1884), 8:12.
See Michael Cook, Commanding Right and Forbidding Wrong in Islamic Thought (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000).
For a full discussion about the concept of enjoining good and forbidding evil, see Abū Ḥāmid Al-Ghazāli, Iḥyāʾ ʿUlūm al-Dīn (Jeddah: Dār al-Minhāj, 2011), 4:535–663.
ʿAbd al-Malik al-Juwaynī, al-Ghiyāthī, ed. ʿAbd al-Aẓīm al-Dīb (Jeddah: Dar al-Minhaj, 2011), 365.
Muḥammad Amīn ibn ʿUmar Ibn ʿĀbidīn, Radd al-muḥtār ʿalá al-durr al-mukhtār sharḥ Tanwīr al-Abṣār (Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmīyah, 2011), 1:136.
Tajwīd of Surah al-Fātiha, to the acceptable level of articulation of Qur’anic words, is farḍ ‘ayn.
Al-Suyūṭī mentioned in al-Ḥāwī that reading the Qur’an in its different qirāʾāt is a matter of consensus (ijmaʿ). Al-Suyūṭī, al-Ḥāwī lil-fatāwá (Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmīyah, 2000), 2:103.
Al-Suyūṭī cited a scholarly discussion on memorizing Qur’an and Hadith, to a disputable extent, to be a communal obligation.
Al-Nawawī, al-Tibyān fī а̄dāb ḥamalat al-Qurʾān, 4th ed. (Beirut: Dār Ibn Ḥazm, 1996).
Although both address legal issues, a muftī issues a nonbinding juristic opinion (fatwá), while a judge issues an enforceable judgement (ḥukm).
Al-Zarkashī, al-Manthūr fī al-qawāʾid, 1st ed. (Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmīyah, 2000), 2:164.
Al-Khaṭīb al-Shirbīnī, Mughnī al-muḥtāj ilà maʿrifat maʿānī alfāẓ al-minhāj, 1st ed. (Beirut: Dār al-Maʿrifah, 1997), 4:277.
Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Karīm al-Shahrastānī, al-Millah wa-al-niḥal (Cairo: Muʾassasat al-Ḥalabī, 1968), 2:10.
Al-Suyūṭī, al-Ashbāh wa-al-naẓāʾir, 724–25.
Abu al- Ḥasan al-Māwardī, al-Ḥawī al-kabīr (Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah 1994), 14:150–51.
This references verse 2:159.
Al-Suyūṭī mentioned that, in some situations, one mufti is not enough for one locality. This provides ample opportunity for reflection in our time given the state of our imams and Islamic institutions, in terms of educational eligibility and institutional credibility.
Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī, bk. 60, hadith 128.
Muḥammad Abū Zahrah, Zahrat al-tafāsīr (Cairo: Dār al-Fikr al-ʿArabī, 2016), 2463.
Muslim legal theorists extrapolated these five basic values, which any rule of law has to be in accordance with, provided that it does not violate or contradict an existing definitive rule (i.e., derived from the Qur’an or the Sunnah). The objectives function in the framework of bringing good and preventing harms. See Ibrahim al-Laqqānī, ʿUmdat al-murīd sharḥ Jawharat al-Tawḥīd, 1st ed. (Amman: Dār al-Nūr al-Mubīn, 2016), 4:2002.
Al-Ghazāli, Iḥyāʾ, 4:62–109.
The topic of jihad is commonly misunderstood and is further elucidated in the following articles: Surkheel Sharif,
“Is Islam a Conquest Ideology? On Jihad, War, and Peace,” Yaqeen, April 16, 2018, https://yaqeeninstitute.org/surkheel-sharif/is-islam-a-conquest-ideology-on-jihad-war-peace
; Justin Parrott, “Jihad in Islam: Just-War Theory in the Quran and Sunnah,” Yaqeen, May15, 2020, https://yaqeeninstitute.org/justin-parrott/jihad-in-islam-just-war-theory-in-the-quran-and-sunnah
ʿAbd al-Malik al-Juwaynī, Nihāyat al-maṭlab fī dirāyat al-madhhab, ed. ʿAbd al-Aẓīm al-Dīb (Beirut: Dār al-Minhāj, 2007), 18:458.
In Islamic political theory, they are called “ahl al-ḥall wa-al-ʿaqd”: the people with discretionary political and social power to enact or dissolve a pact. See Ibn al-Naqīb al-Maṣrī, The Reliance of the Traveler, trans. Nuh Keller (Maryland: Amana Publications, 2008), 629–30.
Al-Kamāl ibn al-Humām, Sharḥ Fatḥ al-Qadīr (Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmīyah, 2003), 7:246.
The full title is al-Miʿyār al-muʿrib wa-al-jamiʿ al-mughrib ʿan fatāwá ʿulamāʾ Ifrīqiyah wa-al-Andalus wa-al-Maghrib (The clear standard and the encyclopedic collection of the legal opinions of the scholars of Tunisia, al-Andalus, and Morocco).
Ibn ʿĀbidīn, Radd al-muḥtār, 8:43.
Abū al-Ḥasan al-Āmidī, al-Iḥkām fī uṣūl al-aḥkām, 2nd ed. (Beirut: al-Maktab al-Islāmī, 1981), 1:100.
Al-Zarkashī, al-Baḥr al-muḥīṭ, 2nd ed. (Kuwait: Ministry of Endowments and Islamic Affairs, 1992), 1:242–45.
Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, bk. 48, hadith 48; Ibn al-Ḥāj, al-Madkhal (Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmīyah, 1995), 4:233.
Al-Juwaynī, al-Ghiyāthī, 137–38.
Al-Zarkashī, al-Baḥr al-muḥīṭ, 252.
Al-ʿAṭṭār, Ḥāshiyat ʿalá jamʿ al-jawāmiʿ, 236–38.
Al-Suyūṭī, al-Ashbāh wa-al-naẓāʾir, 374–75.
Ibn Ḥajar al-Haytamī, al-Fatḥ al-mubīn fī sharḥ al-Arbaʿīn (Jeddah: Dār al-Minhāj, 2008), 545.
Masāfat al-qaṣr is the distance at which one is allowed to shorten a four-unit (rak’ah) prayer to two. Masāfat al-‘adwā is an estimated distance beyond those where one can expect a response upon a cry of help. Scholars applied both distances in multiple legal rulings. In farḍ kifāyah applications, Shāfi’ī scholars discussed the need for a muftī within masāfat al-qaṣr range and a judge (qaḍī) within masāfat al-‘adwā.
Jamāl al-Dīn al-Isnawī, Nihāyat al-sūl Sharḥ Minhāj al-Wuṣūl ilá ʿIlm al-Uṣūl, 1st ed. (Beirut: Dār Ibn Ḥazm, 1999), 99.
Abū al-Qāsim al-Rāfiʿī, Fatḥ al-ʿaziz sharḥ al-Wajīz, 1st ed. (Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmīyah, 1997), 11:253.
Al-Ghazalī, Ihya, 80–82.
Tāj al-Dīn al-Subkī, Muʿīd al-niʿam wa-mubīd al-niqam (Lebanon: Muʾassasat al-Kutub al-Thaqāfīyah, 1986), 62–63.
Ibn ʿAjībah, al-Baḥr al-madīd fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān al-Majīd (al-Hayʾah al-Miṣrīyah al-ʿĀmmah lil-Kitāb, 1999), 3:392.