Is Feminism the Problem? Why Ideological Bandwagons Fail Islam
 Estelle Freedman, No Turning Back: The History of Feminism and the Future of Women (New York: The Random House Publishing Group, 2002), 18.
 Ibid, 17.
 Ibid, 20.
 Mary Kassian, The Feminist Mistake (Wheaton: Good News Publishers, 2005), 11.
 Charlotte Krolokke and Anne Scott Sorensen, “Three Waves of Feminism: From Suffragettes to Grrls,” in Gender Communication Theories & Analyses: From Silence to Performance, (Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 2006), pp. 1-25.
 On intersectionality, see Kimberle Crenshaw, "Demarginalizing the Intersection of Race and Sex: A Black Feminist Critique of Antidiscrimination Doctrine, Feminist Theory and Antiracist Politics," University of Chicago Legal Forum 1989:1, 8. Available at: http://chicagounbound.uchicago.edu/uclf/vol1989/iss1/8
 See, for example: https://muslimskeptic.com/2017/09/19/grave-implications-feminist-islam/
 This hadith will be discussed in greater detail in an upcoming Yaqeen publication.
 Critiquing the way this hadith has been used to engage in misogynistic rhetoric, the contemporary scholar Shaykh Salman al-`Awdah observed, “Reduction in religion (nuqṣān al-dīn) does not entail reduction in religiosity (tadayyun), for indeed there are many women who exceed men in religiosity. Rather, it means lessened responsibility (takhfīf al-taklīf), as a woman does not pray or fast during her period. ” (January 11, 2016, IslamToday.net, http://www.islamtoday.net/albasheer/artshow-12-221128.htm).
 The Andalusian jurist, Ibn Hazm (d. 456 H) explained the fallacy of taking this hadith as an ontological description by pointing out that any man who makes such a claim must assuredly admit to being inferior in intelligence and religion compared to the revered Islamic figures of Maryam, Aisha, Fatima, the mother of Moses, and Sarah. He explained that the Prophet ﷺ’s statement refers only to reduction in prayers and fasting, and the reduction in testimony and does not entail a criticism of women. Refer to Kitab al-fasl fi al-milal wa-al-ahwa' wa-al-nihal, vol. 4, p. 104, accessed online: http://www.islamport.com/w/aqd/Web/2595/552.htm