In this paper, I intend to contribute to the Islamic analytic theological engagement with modern science, focusing on the problem of scientific methodology. In the first part, I lay out what I take to be some basic commitments involved in the ideal Muslim relation to God and creation, which pertain to the conception and practice of science. Second, I critique Nidhal Guessoum’s procedure of defining methodological naturalism, understood as the distinguishing feature of modern science, on the basis of an unexamined distinction between the ‘natural’ and ‘supernatural.’ Third, I suggest that an alternativeexemplified by a proposal from Scott Tanona, of defining the ‘natural,’ in this context, in methodological termsis preferable, both in terms of clarity and in maintaining the distinction between methodological and ontological naturalism.

Trusting in God and tying your camel

Modern science and the ‘nature’ of methodological naturalism

Conceiving the ‘natural’ in methodological terms